Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance profiles in potentially pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from agricultural water usage

Oscar Giovanni Gutiérrez Cárdenas, Luis Fernando Navarro Ibarra, Pedro Damián Loeza Lara, Oscar Guadalupe Del Río Rodríguez, Rafael Jiménez Mejía

Abstract


Seventy percent of water is used in agricultural activities worldwide. However, due to the uncontrolled growth of the population and the contamination of superficial fresh water bodies the water scarcity has augmented, for this the availability of good quality water for agriculture is limited. One of the main pollutants is antibiotic resistant and potentially pathogenic bacteria. P. aeruginosa is a bacterium that normally is found in water and soil, it is pathogen from animals and plants. This bacterium has been considered a resistance phenomenon due to the diversity of mechanisms that contain which represent a potential risk to the population.

Method: Samples of agricultural usage water were collected, of which P. aeruginosa was isolates and identified at the biochemical and molecular level. Also, the distribution of virulence genes was analyzed by PCR. The resistance to 20 antibiotics was tested by disk diffusion and microdilution assays. Even more, heavy metal resistance was analyzed by microdilution assays.

Results: Forty-six P. aeruginosa were identified at molecular and biochemical level, the bacteria were potentially pathogenic because the following virulence genes was detected, algD and toxA in100% of bacteria, lasB in 97.8%, plcH in 95.6%, plcN in 91,3% and exoS in 89.1%. High rates of resistance were detected in bacterial isolates for ampicillin, ceftriaxone, chlroramphenicol, cephalotin, cefotaxime, nitrofurantoin, kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Similarly, susceptibility was detected mainly to ceftazidime, gentamycin, imipenem, tecarcillin, aztreonam, levofloxacin, netilmicin and carbenicillin. All bacteria were multirresistant as they tolerate between 8 and 11 antibiotics. According to the observed resistance patterns bacteria were classified in 11 groups. Whereas, metal tolerance was observed mainly for Cu+2, Zn+2, Ba+2, Pb+2 y Se+4.

Conclusion: P. aeruginosa isolated from agricultural usage water samples in the studied zone are potentially pathogenic due to the presence of virulence genes. Even more, high rates of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance were observed. 


Keywords


P. eruginosa; virulence; antibiotic resistance; metal resistance

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v9i19.957

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