Chemical dosimetry in gamma irradiators of 60Co and 137Cs for semi-industrial and research purpose

María Guadalupe Albarrán Sánchez, Edith Mendoza Villavicencio, Epifanio Cruz Zaragoza


Fricke dosimetry was performed in radiation fields of 60Co and 137Cs, corresponding to the Gammabeam 651PT irradiator loaded with new 60Co sources and a new Gammacell-3000 Elan self-irradiator with 137Cs. This last irradiator was purchased with funds from CONACYT. The gamma photons of 60Co from Gammabeam are using for sterilization of industrial products as well as in studies of physical and chemical properties changes of solid and aqueous solutions samples which are of the interest in research at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). However, the difference in energy of the gamma photons from 60Co (1.17, 1.33 MeV) and 137Cs (0.66 MeV) makes interesting changes in research samples such as polymers, new dosimetric materials, organic compounds, etc., which are currently researching at the Nuclear Science Institute (ICN-UNAM). In order to use the radiation fields of irradiators, it is important to determine the exposure dose. In this paper, a successful methodology by using Fricke chemical dosimeter is reported. In this dosimeter is carried out the oxidation reaction in acid to ferric ion of ferrous. Dose rates distribution, less than 99 Gy/min, was determined in the Gammabeam irradiator. In the case of 137Cs irradiator, 10.89 Gy/min, at the center of the irradiation chamber was obtained. This value is in agreement to that certified measurement given by the Gammacell-3000 supplier. Because the sources are nonpoint, the uncertainties associated to the gamma doses were determinated. The two irradiators have adequate dose rates to continue supporting scientific research on different substances and materials, and offer the irradiation service at semi-industrial scale.


Fricke dosimetry; 60Co and 137Cs gamma sources; dose rate; research irradiator; semi-industrial irradiator


Albarran, G; Esparza, M; Mendoza, E. (2015). Oxidation of hydroxybenzoic acids by OH radical produced radiolytically. Radiat. Phys.Chem. (107): 109-114.

Attix, F.H. (1986). Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. John Wiley & Sons. New York. pp. 395-437.

Bakri, A., Mehta, K., Lance, D.R. (2005). Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation. Ed. Dyck, V.A. Hendrichs, J Robinson A.S. IAEA. Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 233-268.

Burillo, G; Dionisio, N; Garcia-Uriostegui, L. (2013). Evaluation of 2-vinylnaphthalene and 4-vinylbiphenyl as antirads to increase the radiation resistance of poly(vinyl chloride). Polymer Degradation and Stability; (98): 1407-1412.

CAC7RCP 19-1979, 2003, Code of Practice for Radiation Processing of Food, Codex Ali-mentarius, International Foods Standards. World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organizationof the United Nations.

CAC (2006): Understanding the Codex Alimentarius. 3rd edition. FAO/WHO, Rome; 47 pp. ISBN: 978-92-5-105614-1.

Castaños, O., Aguilera, E.F., Barrón-Palos, L., Bijker, R., Cruz-Zaragoza, E., Hess, P.O., Hirsch, J.G., Padilla-Rodal, E., Rickards, J., Ruvalcaba Sil J.L. (2016), La Física Nuclear y de Radiaciones, Revista Mexicana de Física, accepted, pp.1-52.

Costa, C. Vandenborre, J. Crumière, F. Blain, G. Essehli, R. Fattahi, M. (2012). Chemical dosimetry during alpha irradiation: A specific system for UV-Vis in situ measurement. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (3): 6-11.

Cruz Zaragoza, E. (2004), La irradiación de alimentos en otros países y en México, en Expe-riencia Mexicana en Aceleradores de Partículas, (M. Ramos Lara, compiladora), Siglo XXI Editores, México, pp. 217-241.

Cruz Zaragoza, E., Martinez-Barrera, G. (2009), Ionizing radiation effects on the matter and its applications in research and industry, in Gamma Radiation Effects on Polymeric Materials and its Applications: pp. 1-14, ISBN: 978-81-308-0293-0, (Barrera-Díaz C.E. and Martínez-Barrera, G. Editors), Research Signpost, India.

Cruz-Zaragoza, E., Marcazzó, J., Chernov V. (2013), Photo- and thermally stimulated lumi-nescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 81 (2012) 1227–1231.

Dutreix, A. Bridier, A. (1985). The dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Ed. K.R. Kase, B.E. Bjarngard, F.H., Attix, F.H. Vol I. Academic Press, Inc. New York. pp.168.

Eggermont, G., Buysse, J., Janssens, A., Thielens, G., Jacobs, R. (1977). Discrepancies in molar extinction coefficients of Fe3+ in Fricke dosimetry. Proceedings series; v. 2 p. International symposium on national and international standardization of radiation dosimetry; Atlan-ta, GA, USA; Vienna, IAEA-SM-222/42. pp. 317-333.

FAO/OMS, Codex Alimentarius Commission (1984), General Standard for Irradiated Foods and Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods.

Fricke, H. Hard E.J. (1966). Chemical dosimetry in Radiation Dosimetry. Vol II, Ed. F.H. Attix, W.C. Roesch (Academic Press, New York. pp 167-239.

Guiho, J.P. Simoen. J.P. (1975). Détermination expérimentale de l'énergie moyenne nécéssaire à la production d'une paire d'ions dans l'air. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Is. (26): 714-719.

IAEA, (1960), Proceedings of a Conference on the Application of Large Radiation Sources in Industry and Especially to Chemical Processes, International Atomic Energy Agency, War-saw, 8-12 September.

IAEA (1985), Proceedings of an International Symposium on High-Dose Dosimetry., Vienna, 8-12 October.

Izewska, J. Rajan, G. (2005). Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students. Ed. E.B. Podgorsak, IAEA, Vienna, pp. 71-99.

Meléndez-Ortiz, HI; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Jimenez-Paez, VM; Bucio, E. (2016). Modification of medical grade PVC with N-vinylimidazole to obtain bactericidal surface. Radiat. Phys. Chem. (119): 37-43.

Meesat, R.1., Sanguanmith, S., Meesungnoen, J., Lepage, M., Khalil, A., Jay-Gerin, J.P. (2012). Utilization of the ferrous sulfate (Fricke) dosimeter for evaluating the radioprotective po tential of cystamine: experiment and Monte Carlo simulation. Radiat. Res. (177): 813-26.

Miranda Martín del Campo J. (2001). Evaluación de la incertidumbre en datos experimentales. Instituto de Física -UNAM.

Molins, R.A. (2001), Food Irradiation.Principles and Applications, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

Negron-Mendoza, A., Uribe, R.M., Ramos-Bernal, S., Camargo-Raya, C., Gomez-Vidales, V., Kobayashi, K. (2015) Calcium carbonate as a possible dosimeter for high irradiation doses. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. (100): 55-59

OMS (1981), Serie de Informes Técnicos, núm. 659, La comestibilidad de los alimentos irradiados: Informe de un Comité Mixto FAO/OIEA/OMS de Expertos, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Ginebra.

Shortt, K.R. (1989). The temperature dependence of G(Fe3+) for the Fricke dosimeter. Phys. Med. Biol. (34): 1923-1926.

Spinks, J.W. Woods, R.J. (1990). An Introduction to Radiation Chemistry. 3th Ed. (John Wil-ley & Sons, Inc. New York. pp. 95-103.

Svensson, H., Brahme. A. (1979). Ferrous Sulphate Dosimetry for Electrons: A reevaluation. Acta Radiol. Oncol. Radiat. Phys. Biol. (18): 326-336.

Valente, M., Molina, W., Carrizales Silva, L., Figueroa, R., Malano, F., Pérez, P., Santibañez, M., Vedelago, J. (2016). Fricke gel dosimeter with improved sensitivity for low-dose-level measurements. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics (17): 402-417.

Woods, R.J., Pikaev, A.K. (1994). Applied Radiation Chemistry: Radiation Processing. John Willey & Sons, Inc. New York. pp. 341-489.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Nova Scientia

Nova Scientia, year 9, issue 19, November 2017 – April 2018, is a biannual journal printed by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, with its address: Av. Universidad 602, Col. Lomas del Campestre, C. P. 37150, León, Gto. México. Phone: (52) 477 7108500, e-mail: Chief editor: Ph.D. Rolando Pérez Álvarez and Ph.D. Ramiro Rico Martínez. ISSN 2007 - 0705. Copyright for exclusive use No. 04-2008-092518225500/102, Diffusion rights via computer net 04 - 2008 – 121011584800-203 both granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor.

Editor responsible for updating this issue: Direction of Research Department of the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, last updated on Nov 2th, 2017.