C reactive protein as an inflammatory marker in periodontal disease

Víctor Martínez Aguilar, Bertha Arelly Carrillo Ávila, Eugenia Guzmán Marín, Marylin Puerto Solís, Josué Bermeo Escalona, Amaury Pozos Guillén

Abstract


C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is one of the plasma proteins that appear in the acute phase of inflammation. Periodontitis is associated with elevated levels of CRP in adults and with its decreasing after treatment. On the other hand, diabetes is a disease that compromises both the inflammatory and reparative response of the body and the periodontal tissues are particularly sensitive to its effect. Therefore, CRP can be useful for the diagnosis and determination of progression of periodontal disease (PD). The aim of this study was to assess CRP levels in patients with PD and patients with PD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). 60 subjects were included and divided into 3 groups: 15 patients with PD (Group 1), 15 patients with PD and T2D (group 2) and 30 patients systemically healthy (group 3). Each participant underwent biochemical tests: Protein C Reactive (NycoCard® CPR), HbA1c (NycoCard®) and blood glucose test. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and periodontal loss of attachment were registered. For diagnosis of periodontal disease, we followed the parameters of the 5th European Workshop on Periodontology. Kruskal Wallis test was used to evaluate the differences between the groups. Significant statistical differences were found when comparing the CRP concentration in the 3 groups (p<0.01), finding that the healthy group showed the lowest mean (4.88±0.08) and the highest mean values were shown in the PE groups (5.95±2.23) and EP/T2D (5.21±0.20). Also, significant differences (p<0.01) were found in the three groups, in relation to hemoglobin concentration, height, body mass index and periodontal loss of attachment. The results indicate that serum levels of CRP rise in patients with PD and in patients with PE and T2D. Although this difference was noted, there are several local and systemic factors that can potentially influence CRP levels and these represent a limitation and difficulty when interpreting the tests.


Keywords


CRP; Periodontal Disease; T2D

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v9i19.911

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