Antioxidant properties of neem (Azdirachta indica) infusions encapsulated with soy protein

María Luisa Carrillo Inungaray, Abigail Reyes Munguía, Antonio Reyes Martínez, Cristóbal Noé Aguilar González, Raúl Rodríguez Herrera

Abstract


Introduction: Plants contain phytochemicals with healing properties, although not scientifically proven. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a plant, which has been reported to have antioxidant activity leaves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of neem extracts and determine the optimal infusion time to preserve the antioxidant activity of the active compounds in infusions of fresh and dry wall material using neem for encapsulation.

Method: Fresh and dried neem leaves were used to prepare infusions at 0, 3 , 5, 8 , 10, 12 and 15 minutes, which are determined ° Bx , pH , color intensity, content of polyphenols by method of Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant activity by the rate of uptake of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. In the infusions higher content of antioxidant compounds were added 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 % soy protein as wall material and stored for 16 days. Every third day they evaluated the polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and percentage inhibition.

Results: The increased release of active compounds from neem dry leaves was obtained after 8 minutes of infusion. When using fresh leaves for the infusions, the optimal time was 12 minutes, their inhibition percentage was 41.09%, and with infusions of dry leaves, at time 0 and 3 were 60.59% and 64.73% inhibition respectively, and at 15 minutes 86.81%. The content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and percent inhibition were lower in infusions with wall material compared to infusions in which no wall material was added.          

Discussion or Conclusion: Infusions from dried neem leaves are a good natural source of phenolic compounds. Likewise, the use of wall materials such as soy protein is presented as an alternative to preserve the phenolic compounds present in neem.


Keywords


Azadirachta indica; neem; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; biopolimers

References


AOAC. (2007). Oficial Methods of Analysis of the Associatión of Official Analytical (17° ed.).

Akeel, R. A., Mateen, A., Janardhan, K., V.C. Gupta V.C. (2017). Analysis of anti- bacterial and anti oxidative activity of Azadirachta indica bark using various solvent tracts. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24, 11–14.

Beristain, C. I., Cruz-Sosa, F., Lobato-Caballeros, C., Pedroza-Islas R. , Rodríguez-Huezo, M. E., y Verde-Calvo, J. R. (2006). Applications of soluble dietary fibers in beverages. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, 5, 81-95.

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., y Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie, 28, 25-30.

Chattopadhyay, R. R. (2003). Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract: part II. Indian Journal Ethnopharmacology, 89(2-3), 217-219.

Coventry, E., y Allan, E. J. (2001). Microbiological and chemical analysis of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts: new data on antimicrobial activity. Phytoparasitica, 29, 1-10.

Ferretti, G., Bacchetti, T., Belleggia, A. y Neri, D. 2010. Cherry Antioxidants: From Farm to Table. Molecules, 15, 6993-7005; doi:103390/molecules15106993

Kähkönen, M., Anu, I. C., y Marina, H. (2001). Berry fenolics and their Antioxidant activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chmistry, 49, 4076-4082.

Lupea, A.X, Pop, M. y Cacig, S. (2008). Structure-radical scavenging activity relationships of flavonoids from Ziziphus and Hydrangea extracts. Rev. Chim 59(3), 309–13.

Manzocco, L., Anese, M., y Nicoli, M. C. (1998). Antioxidant properties of tea extracts as affected by processing. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie 3, 694-698.

Moreno-Pérez, E. del C., Martínez-Damián, M. T., Reyes-López, D., Pérez-Mercado, C.A., Peña-Lomelí, A., Espinosa-Robles, P. (2006). Intensidad de color y contenido de antocianinas en chile guajillo (Capsicum annuum L.).Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura 12(1): 135-140.

Nahak, G., y Sahu, R. K. (2010). Antioxidant activity in bark and roots of neem (Azadirachta indica) and mahaneem (Melia azedarach). Continental Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4, 28-34.

Ozdal, T., Capanoglu, E., Altay, F. (2013). A review on protein-phenolic interactions and associated changes. Food Res. Int. 51, 954-970.

Papadopoulou, A., y Frazier, R. A. (2004). Characterization of protein–polyphenol interactions. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 15(3), 186–190.

Rashidinejad, A., Birch, E.J., Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse,D., Everettb,D. W. (2016). Effect of liposomal encapsulation on the recovery and antioxidant properties of green tea catechins incorporated into a hard low-fat cheese following in vitro simulate gastrointestinal digestión. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 100, 238-245.

Rashidinejad, A., Birch, E.J., Sun-Waterhouse, D., Everett, D.W. (2013). Effects of catechin on the phenolic content and antioxidant properties of low-fat cheese. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 48, 2448-2455.

Reyes, M. A., Azúara, N. E., Beristain, C. I., Cruz, S. F., y Vernon, C. E. (2009). Propiedades antioxidantes del maguey morado (Rhoeo discolor). Ciencia y Tecnología Alimentaria, 7(3), 209-216.

Robbins, R. (2003). Phenolic acids in foods: an overview of analytical methodology. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 2866-2887.

Rohn, S. (2014). Possibilities and limitations in the analysis of covalent interactions between phenolic compounds and proteins. Food Research International, 65, 13-19.

SaiRam , M., Llavazhagan, G., Sharma, S., Dhanraj, S., Suresh , B., & Parida, M. (2000). Antimicrobial activity of a new vaginal contraceptive NIM-76 from neem oil (Azadirachta indica). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, (71), 377-382.

Salazar, G. (2009). Evaluación de agentes antioxidantes en extractos de flor de jamaica y aceite esencial de laurel. Universidad de las Américas Puebla. Cholula, Puebla, México.

Singleton , V. L., Orthofer, R., y Lamuela-Raventos, R. M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteureagent. Methods in Enzymology, (299), 152-178.

Sithisarn, P., y Gritsanapan, W. (2005). Free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content of siamese neem tree leaf aqueous extract from different locations. Mahidol University. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 32((1-2)), 31-35.

Skerget Mojka, Kotnik, P., Hadolin, M., Rizner Hras, A., Simonic, M. y Knez, Z. (2005). Phenols, proanthocyanidins, flavons and flavonols in some plant materials and their antioxidant activities. Food Chemistry. 89. 191-198.

Turkmen , N., Sari, F., y Velioglu, Y. S. (2005). Effects of extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of black and black mate tea polyphenols determined by ferrous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu methods. Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering. Ankara, Turkey.

Yanpallewar , S. U., Sen, S., Tapas , S., Kumar, M., Raju, S. S., y Acharya, S. B. (2003). Effect of Azadirachta indica on paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Phytomedicine, 10(5), 391-396.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v9i18.819

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Nova Scientia

Nova Scientia, year 9, issue 19, November 2017 – April 2018, is a biannual journal printed by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, with its address: Av. Universidad 602, Col. Lomas del Campestre, C. P. 37150, León, Gto. México. Phone: (52) 477 7108500, e-mail: http://nova_scientia.delasalle.edu.mx. Chief editor: Ph.D. Rolando Pérez Álvarez and Ph.D. Ramiro Rico Martínez. ISSN 2007 - 0705. Copyright for exclusive use No. 04-2008-092518225500/102, Diffusion rights via computer net 04 - 2008 – 121011584800-203 both granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor.

Editor responsible for updating this issue: Direction of Research Department of the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, last updated on Nov 2th, 2017.