Use of total mixed ration as supplement in grazing local goats: Milk production response and chemical composition

Jorge Alonso Maldonado-Jaquez, Lorenzo Danilo Granados-Rivera, Omar Hernández-Mendo, Francisco Javier Pastor-Lopéz, Luis Maconetzin Isidro-Requejo, Homero Salinas-González, Glafiro Torres-Hernández

Abstract


In Mexico, the goat population is concentrated in extensive production systems in Mexico, with herds mainly formed by goats that the producers called Creoles, now accepted as a local name. The power of the goat dairy in the extensive production system, is through the grazing, but this alone cannot meet the nutritional needs of the goat. Therefore, if the producers want to increase the production of milk, it is necessary to supplement the grazing goat diet with grains. On this manner, some results report an increase in milk production in grazing ruminants supplemented with an integral diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the production and composition of milk in grazing local goats supplemented with an integral feed. Two experiments were performed. The first, evaluated the effect of changing from a grazing system to intensive system, in order to challenge the goats to express their productive potential by providing them with an integral feed. In the second, it evaluated the effect in grazing local goat milk reproduction and composition, evaluating them with different levels of supplements used in experiment one. Data from milk production and chemical composition in milk of both experiments were analyzed using a repeated measure model. The information of body weight and body condition of the goats, were analyzed as a completely randomized design. An analysis of partial cost was realized in both experiments, in order to know the economic viability of the treatments. In experiment one, the concentration of fat in milk did not changed (p > 0.05) by effect of treatment, however, it did increase milk production (p ≤ 0.01) and concentration of protein and lactose (p ≤ 0.05) in intensive goats compared with grazing goats. In experiment two, the grain supplementation in grazing local goats with two levels (500 g d-1 and 1000 g d-1) did not change the concentration of fat in milk (p > 0.05), but increased body condition of goats and milk production (p ≤ 0.01) and protein and lactose (p ≤ 0.05) in comparison to local grazing goats. Thus, partial costs analysis indicated that the supplementation of grazing goats is not economically viable. For future references, further research is recommended under low-cost food and negotiation to improve prices for quality of milk.

Keywords


Supplementation; milk; local goats; Comarca Lagunera

References


Ahamefule, F.O., Ibeawuchi, J.A. & Nwachinemere, G.C. (2007). Comparative evaluation of milk yield and composition of West African Dwarf goats raised in the village and university environment. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 6(6): 802-806.

Annison, E. F. & Linzell J. (1964). The oxidation and utilization of glucose and acetate by the mammary gland of the goat in relation to their over-all metabolism and to milk formation. Journal of Physiology, 175:372–85.

AOAC. (2006). Official methods of analysis. 18th ed. Gaithersburg, MD: AOAC International.

Araque C., D’Aubeterre R., Quijada T., Dickson L., Muñoz G. & Sánchez A. (2008). Efectos de la complementación con heno-melaza-urea sobre parámetros productivos en cabras criollas a pastoreo. Revista Científica, FCV-LUZ, 4:398 – 402.

Askar, A.R., Gipson, T.A., Puchala, R., Tesfau, K., Detweiler, D.G., Asmare, A., Keli, A. & Goetsch, A. L. (2015). Effects of supplementation and body condition on intake digestion, performance and behavior of yearling Boer and Spanish goat wethers grazing grass/forb pastures. Small Ruminant Research. 125-43-55.

Bauman, D. E., & Griinari J. M. (2003). Nutritional regulation of milk fat synthesis. Annual Review of Nutrition, 23:203-227.

Cao Z. J., Li S. L., Xing J. J., Ma M. J. M. & Wang L. L. (2008). Effects of maize grain and lucerne particle size on ruminal fermentation, digestibility and performance of cows in midlactation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 92:157–167.

Carnicella, D., Dario, M., Ayres, M.C.C., Laudadio, V. & Dario, C. (2008). The effect of diet, parity, year and number of kids on milk yield and milk composition in Maltese goats. Small Ruminant Research. 77(1): 71-74.

Caroprese, M., Ciliberti, M.G., Santillo, A., Marino, R., Sevi, A. & Albenzio, M. (2016). Inmune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Research in Veterinary Advances. 105:229-235.

Chilibroste, P., Soca, P., Mattiauda, D.A., Bentancur, O. & Robinson, P.H. (2007). Short term fasting as a tool to design effective grazing strategies for lactating dairy cattle: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 47(9):1075-1084.

Chilliard Y., Torala P.G., Shingfield K. J., Rouela J., Lerouxa C. & Bernard L. (2014). Effects of diet and physiological factors on milk fat synthesis, milk fat composition and lipolysis in the goat: A short review. Small Ruminant Research, 122: 31–37.

Domínguez-Martínez, P. A., Pérez-Gallardo A., Tovar-Luna I. & Jaimes-Jaimes J. (2011). Efecto del nivel de concentrado en la ración y de la calidad del agua de bebida sobre el consumo y digestibilidad de la materia seca, y la producción, composición química de la leche en cabras. Revista Chapingo Serie Zonas Aridas, 10:67-72

Eknæs, M.; Kolstad, K.; Volden, H. & Hove, K. (2006). Changes in body reserves and milk quality throughout lactation in dairy goats. Small Ruminant Research. 63(1): 1-11.

Escareño, L., Salinas-González, H., Wurzinger, M., Íñiguez, L., Sölkner, J. & Meza-Herrera, C. (2012). Dairy goat production systems: Status quo, perspectives and challenges. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 45(1): 17-34.

Escareño, L., Wurzinger, M., Pastor, F., Salinas, H., Solkner, J. & Iñiguez, L. (2011). LA cabra y los sistemas de producción caprina de los pequeños productores de la Comarca Lagunera, en el norte de México. Revista Chapingo-Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente, 17:235-246.

Escareño, S.L. (2010). Design and implementation of a community-based goat-breeding program for smallholders in the North of Mexico. Doctorate dissertation. University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science. Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Vienna, Austria.

Fajardo M., Mattiauda D. A., Motta G., Genro T. C., Meikle A. G. & Carriquiry M. (2015). Use of mixed rations with different access time to pastureland on productive responses of early lactation Holstein cows. Livestock Science, 181:51–57.

García, E. (1988). Modificaciones al Sistema de Clasificación Climática de Köppen. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. pp:217.

Goetsch, A.L., Zeng, S.S. & Gipson, T.A. (2011). Factors affecting goat milk production and quality. Small Ruminant Research, 101(1-3):55-63.

Gómez-Pastén, M., Mora-Izaguirre, O., Meléndez-Soto, R.M., Romano-Muñoz, J.L., Vera-Ávila, H. & Shimada-Misayaka, A. (2010). Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias. 1(3):205-219.

Hernández-Mendo, O., Von-Keyserlingk, M.A.G., Veira, D.M. & Weary, D.M. (2007). Effects of pasture on lameness in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 90 (3):1209-1214.

Hötger, K., H. M. Hammon, C. Weber, S. Görs, A. Tröscher, R. M. Bruckmaier, & Metges C. C. (2013). Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 96:2258-2270.

Kawas, J.R., Andrade-Montemayor, H., Lu, C.D. (2010). Strategic nutrient supplementation of free-ranging goats. Small Ruminant Research, 89:234-243.

Kennedy, E., Curran, J., Mayes, B., McEvoy, M., Murphy, J.P. & O´Donovan, M. (2011). Restricting dairy cow access time to pasture in early lactation: the effects on milk production, grazin behavior and dry matter intake. Animal, 5 (11):1805-1813.

Kuhn, N. J., Carrick, D. T., & Wilde, C. J. (1980). Lactose synthesis: the possibilities of regulation. Journal of Dairy Science, 63:328–36.

Lahlou, M. N., Kanneganti, R., Massingill, L. J., Broderick, G. A., Park, Y., Pariza, M. W., Ferguson, J. D. & Wu, Z. (2014). Grazing increases the concentration of CLA in dairy cow milk. Animal, 8:1191–1200

Mancilla-Leyton, J.M., Martín-Vicente, A. & Delgado-Pertiñez, M. (2013). Summer diet selection of dairy goats grazing in a Mediterranean Shrubland and the quality of secreted fat. Small Ruminant Research. 113:437-445.

Martin, B., Hurtaud, C., Graulet, B., Ferlay, A., Chilliard, Y. &Coulon, J. B. (2009). Grass and the nutritional and organoleptic qualities of dairy products. Forages, 199 291–310.

Merlos-Brito, M., Martínez-Rojero, R.D., Torres-Hernández, G., Mastache-Lagunas, A.A., & Gallegos-Sánchez, J. (2008). Evaluación de características productivas en cabritos Boer x Local, Nubia x Local y locales en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México. Veterinaria México, 39(3):323-333.

Min, B. R., Hart, S. P., Sahlu, T. & Satter, L. D. (2005). The effect of diets on milk production and composition, and on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. Journal of Dairy Science, 88:2604-2615.

Montaldo, H.H., Torres-Hernández, G., & Valencia-Posadas, M. (2010). Goat breeding research in Mexico. Small Ruminant Research, 89:155-163.

Morand-Fehr, P., Fedele, V., Decandia, M. & Le Frileux, Y. (2007). Influence of farming and feeding systems on composition and quality of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Research, 68:20-34.

National Research Council (US). Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants. (2007). Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: Sheep, goats, cervids, and new world camelids.

Rigout, S, S. Lemosquet, J. E., Van Eys, J., Blum, W. & Rulquin, H. (2002). Duodenal glucose increases glucose fluxes and lactose synthesis in grass silage-fed dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 85:595–606.

Salinas-Gonzalez, H., Meza-Herrera, C.A., Esareño-Sanchez, LM., Echavarria-Cháirez, F.G., Maldonado-Jáquez, J.A., Pastor-López, F.J. (2015a). Sistemas de producción caprinos carne-leche: Tendencias Productivas en México y el mundo. En, Enfermedades de las cabras, compilado por Díaz Aparicio E., Tórtora Pérez J.L., Palomares Resendiz E.G., Guitierrez Hernandez J.L., 3-22. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas y Pecuarias.

Salinas, G.H., Maldonado, J.A., Torres-Hernández, G., Triana-Gutiérrez, M., Isidro-Requejo, L.M. & Meda-Alducin, P. (2015b). Compositional quality of local goat milk in the Comarca Lagunera of Mexico. Revista Chapingo Serie Zonas Áridas. 14(2): 175-184.

Salvador, A., Martínez, G. (2007). Factores que afectan la producción y composición de le leche de cabra: Revisión bibliográfica. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, 48(2):61-76.

Sistema de Información Agroalimentaria y Pesquera-Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación) (SIAP-SAGARPA). (2016). Anuario estadístico de la producción agropecuaria. México.

Sprunck, M., Mattiauda, D., Motta, G., Fajadro, M. & Chilibroste, P. (2012). Response of postpartum dairy cows to contrasting feeding strategies: Grazing plus supplements versus confinement on milk and solids production. Journal of Dairy Science, 95(2):486

Statistical Analysis System (SAS). (2008). SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Software version 9.4. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.

Toyes-Vargas, E. A., Murillo-Amador, B., Espinoza-Villavicencio, J. L., Carreón-Palau, L. & Palacios-Espinosa, A. (2013). Composición química y precursores de ácidos vaccénico y ruménico en especies forrajeras en Baja California Sur, México. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 4:373-386.

Tudisco, R., Grossi, M., Addi, M., Musco, N., Cutrignelli, M.I., CAlabro, S. & Infascelli, F. (2014). Fatty acid profile and CLA content of goat milk: Influence of feeding system. Journal of Food Research. 3(4):93-100.

Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. & Lewis, B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(10):3583-3597

Walkden-Brown, S.W., Norton, B.W. & Restall, B.J. (1994). Seasonal variations in voluntary fed intake in Cashmere bucks fed ad libitum diets of low or high quality. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research, 45:355-366.

Wang, F. & Nishino, N. (2008). Ensiling of soybean curd residue and wet brewers grains with or without other feeds as a total mixed ration. Journal of Dairy Science, 91: 2380-2387.

Zeng, S. S., Soryal, K., Fekadu, B., Bah, B. & T. Popham. (2007). Predictive formulae for goat cheese yield based on milk composition. Small Ruminant Research, 69:180–186.

Zhao, F. Q. (2014). Biology of glucose transport in the mammary gland. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 19: 3–17.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v9i18.728

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Nova Scientia

Nova Scientia, year 9, issue 19, November 2017 – April 2018, is a biannual journal printed by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, with its address: Av. Universidad 602, Col. Lomas del Campestre, C. P. 37150, León, Gto. México. Phone: (52) 477 7108500, e-mail: http://nova_scientia.delasalle.edu.mx. Chief editor: Ph.D. Rolando Pérez Álvarez and Ph.D. Ramiro Rico Martínez. ISSN 2007 - 0705. Copyright for exclusive use No. 04-2008-092518225500/102, Diffusion rights via computer net 04 - 2008 – 121011584800-203 both granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor.

Editor responsible for updating this issue: Direction of Research Department of the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, last updated on Nov 2th, 2017.