Los factores determinantes del modelo de negocios abierto

Juan Mejia-Trejo

Resumen


Introducción: Desde principios del siglo XXI, varios autores afirman que los modelos de negocio abiertos (OBM) permiten a una organización ser más eficaz en la creación y la captura de valor siendo un requisito previo para el éxito de las asociaciones de co-desarrollo. Como resultado de las tendencias de: crecientes costos de desarrollo y ciclos de vida de los productos/servicios más cortos, las empresas encuentran cada vez más difícil justificar las inversiones en innovación. El OBM resuelve ambas tendencias, subrayando los términos: "ecosistema de la industria" y/o "modelo de negocio colaborativo". No sólo cambia el proceso de innovación, sino que también modifica a las propias organizaciones mediante la reconfiguración de sus cadenas de valor y redes. Para las empresas, crea una lógica heurística basada en el actual modelo de negocio y tecnología para extenderlas, con estrategia, al desarrollo de la innovación para crear valor y aumentar los ingresos y beneficios. Enfatiza tanto las relaciones externas así como la gobernabilidad, como valiosos recursos con varios roles que promueven la competitividad corporativa. Por lo tanto, para un sector especializado de alta tecnología como lo es el de las tecnologías de la información de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara (ITSMZG), exponemos el siguiente problema de investigación: ¿Cuáles son los factores determinantes de la OBM como modelo empírico que se aplcado en el ITSMZG?

Método: Como se ve, esta investigación tiene como objetivo plantear, los factores determinantes de la OBM como un modelo empírico que sea aplicado en el ITSMZG.Se trata de un estudio documental para seleccionar las principales variables entre los especialistas de las ITSMZG que practican el proceso OBM mediante el proceso de jerarquía analítica (AHP) y el Panel de Delphi a fin de contrastar los términos académicos con la experiencia de los especialistas. Es un estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, correlacional, transeccional, cualitativo-cuantitativo para obtener un cuestionario final en escala Likert, con confiabilidad a través de prueba piloto (Alfa de Cronbach>0.7), aplicado entre enero 2015-mayo 2016 a una población total de: 600 especialistas en el  ITSMZG (150 profesores de IT; 150 representantes de consultores de firmas IT como “parte consultora” ; 290 CEO PyME y  10 CEO de empresas grandes como parte de “toma de decisiones”, con 1 año en el mercado, 80% con licenciatura, 20% con postgrado, 20% mujeres y 80% hombres).

Se diseñó  un modelo de ecuaciones estructural de primer orden (SEM) como técnica de análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA), mediante el software EQS 6.1 para analizar las variables subyacentes de OBM, y determinar un modelo final.

Resultados: El resultado es un modelo empírico de OBM, que consiste en 5 principales factores: administración del negocio (BMG, 10 variables/76 indicadores), estrategia (STR, 3 variables/14 indicadores), tecnología (TEC, 3 variables/24 indicators), nuevos emprendimientos (NWE, 3 variables /7indicadores) y  orientación de la innovación abierta (OIO, 3 variables/18 indicadores).

Conclusión. Aunque el modelo empírico final de OBM tiene un efecto positivo significativo entre sus variables, también mostró diferentes niveles de carga de factores, lo que significa oportunidades para mejorar el modelo para el ITSMZG.


Palabras clave


factores determinantes; modelo de negocios abierto; tecnologías de información

Texto completo:

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