Effect of adding mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia atropes to raw milk on mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coliforms
PDF

Keywords

Raw milk
Opuntia
mucilage
mesophilic aerobic bacteria
total coliforms Leche cruda
Opuntia
mucílago
bacterias aerobias mesófilas
coliformes totales

How to Cite

Pérez Sánchez, R. E., Ortiz-Rodríguez, R., Aguilar-Barrera, J. L., Valdéz-Alarcón, J. J., Val- Arreola, D., Esquivel-Córdoba, J., & Martínez-Flores, H. E. (2016). Effect of adding mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia atropes to raw milk on mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coliforms. Nova Scientia, 8(16), 106–122. https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v8i16.384

Abstract

Raw milk is one of the most important food for human consumption, particularly for small dairy farms who produce milk either self-consumption or to sell it to local artisanal cheese makers; due to the elevate risk of contamination by pathogenic bacteria, it is important to offer alternatives to enhance microbiological quality of raw milk. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of liquid mucilage and dried mucilage from Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia atropes to the raw milk on the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coliforms. Raw milk samples from Holstein cows supplied by a smallholder was added with liquid mucilage or dried mucilage from O. ficus-indica or O. atropes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. Samples were measured for mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coliforms and results were analyzed by the fixed effects model and means comparisons. In general, counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coliforms were significant reduced (P<0.05) when both mucilages were added at 0.5%, independently of the physical form (dried or liquid) added to the raw milk. Lower counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (P<0.05) were observed when dried mucilage from O. ficus indica (log10 2.6 CFU mL-1) and O. atropes (log10 2.7 CFU mL-1) were added at 0.5%, respectively. Control raw milk with no added mucilage had log10 3.6 CFU mL-1. The best response for total coliforms was observed when dried mucilage was added at 1% from O. ficus-indica (log10 3.0 CFU mL-1) and liquid mucilage at 1% from O. atropes (log10 2.7 CFU mL1). Dried mucilage or liquid mucilage from O. ficus-indica and O. atropes reduced the microbial content of raw milk.

https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v8i16.384
PDF

References

Consejo para el Fomento de la Calidad de la Leche y sus Derivados (COFOCALEC) (2005). Sistema Producto Leche-Alimento-Lácteo-Leche Cruda de Vaca-Especificaciones Físico-químicas, Sanitarias y Métodos de Prueba. Norma Oficial Mexicana. NMX-F-700-COFOCALEC-2004, México, D.F.

D’Amico, D.J. and Donnelly, C.W. (2010). Microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in Vermont: Effect of farm characteristics and practices. Journal of Dairy Science 93 134-147.

El-Mostafa, K., El-Kharrassi, Y., Badreddine, A., Andreoletti, P., Vamecq, J., El-Kebbaj, M.S., Latruffe, N., Lizard, G., Nasser, B., Cherkaoui-Malki, M. (2014). Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease. Review. Molecules 19 14879-14901.

Ennouri, M., Ammar, I., Khemakhem, B., and Attia, H. (2014). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica F. Inermis (Cactus Pear) Flowers. Journal of Medicinal Food 00 1-7.

Gammariello, D., Di Giulio, S., Conte, A., and Del Nobile, M.A. (2008). Effects of natural compounds on microbial safety and sensory quality of fior di latte cheese, a typical Italian Cheese. Journal of Dairy Science 91 4238-4146.

Garedew, L., Berhanu, A., Mengesha, D., and Tsegay, G. (2012). Identification of gram-negative bacteria from critical control points of raw and pasteurized cow milk consumed at Gondar town and its suburbs, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 12 950. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-950.

Guevara-Arauza, J.C., Ornelas-Paz, L.J., Pimentel-González, D.J., Mendoza, S.R., Soria, G.R.E. and Paz, M.L.M.T. (2012). Prebiotic effect of mucilage and pectic-derived oligosaccharides from nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica). Food Science and Biotechnology 21 997-1003.

Hernandez-Hernandez, T., Hernandez, H.M., De-Nova, J.A., Puente, R., Eguiarte, L.E. and Magallon, S. (2011). Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of growth form in Cactaceae (Caryophyllales, Eudicotyledoneae). American Journal of Botany 98 44–61.

INEGI [INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA Y GEOGRAFIA] (2005). Report of geographical information of Jiquilpan Municipality, in Michoacan State [Prontuario de información geográfica municipal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Jiquilpan, Michoacán de Ocampo]. National Institute of Statistical and Geographical, Mexico, D.F.

Kim, H.S., Kwon, N.H., Kim, J.Y., Lim, J.Y., Bae, W.K., Mim, J.M., Hoh, K.M., Hur, J., Jung, W.K., Park, J.E., Lee, J.E., Ra, J.C. and Park, Y.H. (2002). Antimicrobial activity of natural product made by Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten against Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Journal of Food Hygienic Safety 17 71-78.

Littell, C.R., Milliken, A.G., Stroup, W.W., Wolfinger, D.R. and Schabenberger, O. (2006). SAS® for Mixed Models. Second Edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. USA. 733-735.

Littell, C.R., Stroup, W.W. and Freund, J.R. (2002). SAS® for Linear Models, Fourth Edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. USA. 191-194.

Magne, F., Hachelaf, W., Suau, A., Boudraa, G., Bouziane-Nedjadi, K., Rigottier-Gois, L., Touhami, M., Desjeux, J.F. and Pochart, P. (2008). Effects on faecal microbiota of dietary and acidic oligosaccharides in children during partial formula feeding. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 46 580-588.

Nefzaoui, A., Nazareno, M. and El-Mourid, M. (2007). Review of medical uses of cactus. Cactusnet Newsletter 11 3-17

O’Connell, J.E. and Fox, P.F. (1999). Proposed mechanism for the effect of polyphenols on the heat stability of milk. International Dairy Journal 9 523-536.

O’Connell, J.E. and Fox, P.F. (2001). Significance and applications of phenolic compounds in the production and quality of milk and dairy products: a review. International Dairy Journal 11 103-120.

Ortiz, R.R., García, G.R.A., Valdez, A.J.J., Lara, B.N. and Pérez, S.R.E. (2011). Estudio exploratorio del efecto de la adición de nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) a la leche cruda sobre las cuentas bacterianas: mesófilas aerobias y Coliformes totales. In: Proc. Reuniones Nacionales de Investigación e Inocuidad Pecuaria, Agrícola, Forestal y Acuícola Pesquera. Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico 117.

Ortiz-Rodríguez, R., Valdez-Alarcón, J.J., Garcidueñas-Piña, R., Chávez-Moctezuma, M.P., Val-Arreola, D., Hernandez-Valdes, E.F. and Pérez-Sánchez, R.E. (2013). Effect of added nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) on microbial content in raw milk. African Journal of Microbiology 7 3675-3680.

Quigley, J., O’Sullivan, O., Stanton, C., Beresford, T.P., Ross, R.P., Fitzgerald, G.F. and Cotter, P.D. (2013). The complex microbiota of raw milk. FEMS Microbiology Review 37 664-698.

Rabhi, A., Falleh, H., Limam, F., Ksouri, R., Abdelly, C. and Raies, A. (2013). Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities phenol content and fatty acid composition of Tunisian Opuntia ficus-indica fruit. African Journal of Biotechnology 12 5875-5885.

Rodríguez-González, S., Martínez-Flores, H.E., Chávez-Moreno, C.K., Macías-Rodríguez, L.I., Zavala-Mendoza, E., Garnica-Romo, M.G., and Chacón-García, L. (2014 ). Extraction and characterization of mucilage from wild species of Opuntia. Journal of Food Process and Engineering 37 285-292.

Sánchez, E., Davila-Aviña, J., Castillo, S.L., Heredia, N., Vázquez-Alvarado, R. and García, S. (2014). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear. Journal of Food Science 79 M659-M664.

Secretaria de Salud (SSA) Dirección General de Control Sanitario de Bienes y Servicios. Bienes y servicios. (1995)a. Bienes y Servicios: Método para la cuenta de bacterias aerobias en placa.

Norma Oficial Mexicana. NOM-092-SSA1-1994. México, D.F. [Internet document] URLhttp://201.147.97.103/work/sites/cfp/resources/LocalContent/1340/2/092ssa1.pdf Accessed 22/09/2014

Secretaria de Salud (SSA) Dirección General de Control Sanitario de Bienes y Servicios. Bienes y servicios. (1995)b. Bienes y Servicios: Prácticas de higiene y sanidad en la preparación de alimentos que se ofrecen en establecimientos fijos. Norma Oficial Mexicana. NOM-093-SSA1-1994. México, D.F. [Internet Document] URL http://www.salud.gob.mx/unidades/cdi/nom/093ssa14.html Accessed 22/09/2014

Secretaria de Salud (SSA) Dirección General de Control Sanitario de Bienes y Servicios. Bienes y servicios. (1995)c. Bienes y Servicios: Preparación y dilución de muestras de alimentos para su análisis microbiológico. NOM-110-SSA1-1994 [Interned Document] URL http://www.salud.gob.mx/unidades/cdi/nom/110ssa14.html Accessed 22/09/2014

Secretaria de Salud (SSA) Dirección General de Control Sanitario de Bienes y Servicios. Bienes y servicios. (1995)d. Bienes y servicios: Método para la cuenta de microorganismos coliformes totales en placa. Norma Oficial Mexicana. NOM-113-SSA1 [Internet Document] URL http://www.salud.gob.mx/unidades/cdi/nom/113ssa14.html Accessed 22/09/2014

Shafiei, S., Kariminik, A. and Hasanabadi, Z. (2013). Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract of Opuntia stricta F. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 7 907-910.

Yahia, E.M., Ornelas, J.J. and Anaya, A. (2009). Extraction and chemical characteristics of mucilage from mesquite, Aloe vera, maguey and prickly pear cactus cladodes (Nopal) and evaluation of its prebiotic effect on the growth of 2 probiotic bacteria. Acta Horticulturae 841 625-628.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2016 Nova Scientia