Ovarian function can be altered by ciclooxigense enzyme inhibitors (COX). Piroxicam administration, a COX inhibitor, is an usual veterinary drug and it can alter the function of the ovaries.The aim of this research was to evaluate the intra and extra-ovarian changes in adult goats as a response to piroxicam. Six adult goats (35 to 40 kg of body weight) were used. Estrus synchronization and ovulation were induced by CIDR (controlled release device intravaginal progesterone) insertion through 11 days, when the CIDR was removed prostaglandin F2α and 400 IU of eCG (ovulation induction) were applied. Before (24 h) ovulation induction, the goats in the control (n = 3) and treatment group (n = 3) were intramuscularly treated with one mL of saline solution or piroxicam (1.5 mg-1 kg of body weight), respectively, in four applications with 24 h interval. After the first piroxicam application (144 h) ovaries were removed. Blood sampling was performed from 48 hours before ovulation induction until ovariectomy was performed. In left and right ovary surface, both number and size of follicles and corpora lutea were quantified. In 16 histological sections from each ovary, the same intraovarian structures were evaluated. Also both serum progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) were determined. Follicles and CL were analyzed through Wilcoxon rank sum test. While, E2 and P4 were analyzed using models for repeated measures (linear mixed models), which were fitted using the R statistical software. Differences were took at α< 0.05. Piroxicam administration reduces intraovarian follicular number (P< 0.0001) and development of intraovarian CL (P=0.04). Levels of E2 and P4 were not modified by piroxicam application (P=0.2), although, P4 concentration showed elevation, coincident with the time of ovulation induction (P=0.002), but not by treatment. Follicular alterations may be an alternative route that piroxicam and other AINE used to inhibit ovulation frequently reported with this drug treatments.
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