Protocol for short-term tumor development, as an option for the study of chemopreventive agents


Colon cancer
in vivo models
BALB/c mice
sodium dextran sulfate
lipid oxidation
protein oxidation
intestinal dysbiosis
intestinal microbiota
intestinal inflammatory diseases cáncer de colon
modelos in vivo
ratones BALB/c
dextran sulfato de sodio
oxidación de lípidos
oxidación de proteínas
disbiosis intestinal
microbiota intestinal
enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales

How to Cite

Cid-Gallegos, M. S., Sánchez-Chino, X. M., Álvarez-González, I., Madrigal Bujaidar, E., Vásquez-Garzón, V. R., Baltiérrez Hoyos, R., & Jiménez Martínez, C. (2022). Protocol for short-term tumor development, as an option for the study of chemopreventive agents. Nova Scientia, 14(28).


Introduction: Colon cancer diagnosis is usually performed late; so, it is necessary to search for prevention options. In vivo models are an option for the evaluation of chemopreventive agents, which are based mainly on the induction and promotion of carcinogenesis; however, they take a long time. This work aimed to evaluate and propose a carcinogenesis model, with tumor manifestation in a short time to prove the efficacy of chemopreventive compounds.

Method: Colon carcinogenesis was induced in three groups (n = 7) male BALB/c mice with azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The damage was assessed 14 weeks after the induction. Protocols were: 1) P1: two AOM injections and two DSS cycles at 1.5 % for five days, with three resting days between cycles; 2) P2: one AOM injection and two DSS cycles at 2 % for seven days with five rest days, and 3) P3: one AOM injection and two DSS cycles at 2 % for four days, with four resting days. Negative control was used in parallel, P0: with one injection of saline solution and water ad libitum. Weight, disease activity index (DAI), survival, tumor incidence, lipids, and protein oxidation were determined.

Results: P2 showed greater severity in the assessed signs (100 % tumor incidence, colon weight/length ratio 101.68 ± 2.99 mg/cm), with low survival (43 %). P1 depicted lower mortality (14 %) and 83 % tumor incidence, without a significant difference to P2. P3 developed the disease but to a lesser degree (33 % tumor incidence). Furthermore, the three protocols showed lipid oxidation (0.4-0.58 ng/μg of protein) and proteins oxidation (0.6-1 ng/μg of protein). The P1 and P3 induction protocols presented less mortality, weight loss, and acceptable DAI, a weight/length ratio higher than the negative control and presence of tumors.

Discussion: The use of AOM (10mg/kg) combined with DSS (1.5-2 %) are suitable models to evaluate the carcinogenic effect of compounds of interest, inflammation signs, lipids and proteins oxidation and a survival number adequate to perform the statistical analysis leading to accurate conclusions. Therefore, P1 and P3 are protocols that can be used in chemoprevention assays with satisfactory results.


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