Impact of genetic evaluations on the genetic trends of Jersey and Brown Swiss cattle in Mexico

Neon Larios-Sarabia, Rodolfo Ramírez-Valverde, Rafael Núñez-Domínguez, José Guadalupe García-Muñiz, Agustín Ruiz-Flores

Abstract


Introduction: The national specialized dairy herd has few estimates of genetic trends made in recent years. This lack of information limits the evaluation of both the genetic progress obtained and the estimation of the impact of national genetic evaluations (GE). The aims of this study were to estimate the genetic progress for Jersey and Brown Swiss dairy cattle populations, before and after the implementation of the national GE, and to analyze the main causes of the estimated genetic change.

Method: The genealogical and productive databases of the respective national associations of registered dairy cattle breeders were used. Breeding values for milk yield (MY), adjusted to 305 and 210 days in lactation, were analyzed for the periods 1994-2015 and 1986-2016, for Jersey and Brown Swiss, respectively. Genetic trends were estimated by weighted regression by the number of animals of breeding values over the years of birth. To analyze the genetic progress, trends were estimated by periods (considering the year of start of the national GE), selection paths, origin of parents, herds, and by weighted averages of the sires’ breeding values.

Results: In both breeds the general and per period genetic trends for MY were significantly different from zero (p<0.001). For Jersey, the trend for the whole period was -21.3 kg year-1, with a positive trend before the national GE (28.1 kg year-1) and negative (-49.0 kg year-1) after them. For the Brown Swiss breed, the general trend was 2.4 kg year-1; before the national GE the genetic trend was positive but of low magnitude (3.2 kg year-1); after the GE the genetic trend was reduced even further (0.43 kg year-1). In both breeds the genetic improvement before and after the national GE did not affect their structure in terms of the selection paths or origin of parents. The largest differences between weighted and unweighted averages were for those years with high genetic progress, unlike the last 10 years that showed the lowest genetic progress. Also, herds with selection objectives different to the majority of herds were found, and their exclusion (Jersey) or inclusion (Brown Swiss) from the national registered herd contributed significantly to decline the genetic progress for MY in the second period.

Conclusion: The genetic improvement of MY for the populations studied has been positive but low for Brown Swiss and negative for Jersey. The genetic progress in both breeds decreased after the implementation of the national GE, so they have not had a positive impact on genetic improvement of MY in these populations. The results indicate the need to restructure the national genetic improvement program of the dairy populations studied, with the joint participation of the actors involved in the sector.


Keywords


breeding value; genetic improvement; milk production; bovine; animal husbandry; animals; genotypes; phenotypes; genetic trends; milk components

References


AIPL. (2018). Genetic evaluations available from AIPL. Retrieved December 20, 2018, from https://www.uscdcb.com/what-we-can-do-for-you/trends-stats/

Canaza-Cayo, A. W., Cobuci, J. A., Lopes, P. S., de Almeida Torres, R., Martins, M. F., dos Santos Daltro, D., Barbosa da Silva, M. V. G. (2016). Genetic trend estimates for milk yield production and fertility traits of the Girolando cattle in Brazil. Livestock Science, 190, 113-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2016.06.009

Canaza-Cayo, A. W., Lopes, P. S., Barbosa da Silva, M. V. G., de Almeida Torres, R., Martins, M. F., Arbex, W. A., Cobuci, J. A. (2015). Genetic parameters for milk yield and lactation persistency using random regression models in Girolando cattle. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 28(10), 1407-1418. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.14.0620

CDN. (2018). Heritability estimates used for genetic evaluation in Canada. Retrieved December 20, 2018, from https://www.cdn.ca/files_ge_articles.php

Domínguez-Viveros, J., Núñez-Domínguez, R., Ramírez-Valverde, R., Ruíz-Flores, A. (2003). Evaluación genética de variables de crecimiento en bovinos Tropicarne. II. Tendencias Genéticas. Agrociencia, 37, 337-343.

Gilmour, A. R., Gogel, B. J., Cullis, B. R., Welham, S. J., Thompson, R. (2015). ASReml user guide release 4.1 structural specification. Hemel Hempstead: VSN International Ltd. UK.

Hintz, R. L., Everett, R. W., Van Vleck, L. D. (1978). Estimation of genetic trends from cow and sire evaluations. Journal of Dairy Science, 61(5), 607-613.

Katok, N., y Yanar, M. (2012). Milk traits and estimation of genetic, phenotypic and environmental trends for milk and milk fat yields in Holstein Friesian cows. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13, 311-314.

Konkruea, T., Koonawootrittriron, S., Elzo, M. A., Suwanasopee, T. (2017). Genetic parameters and trends for daughters of imported and Thai Holstein sires for age at first calving and milk yield. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 51(5), 420-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anres.2017.12.003

Koonawootrittriron, S., Elzo, M. A., Thongprapi, T. (2009). Genetic trends in a Holstein × other breeds multibreed dairy population in Central Thailand. Livestock Science, 122(2), 186-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.08.013

Kruszyński, W., Pawlina, E., Szewczuk, M. (2013). Genetic analysis of values, trends and relations between conformation and milk traits in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. Archives Animal Breeding, 56(1), 536-546. https://doi.org/10.7482/0003-9438-56-052

Kudinov, A. A., Juga, J., Mäntysaari, E. A., Strandén, I., Saksa, E. I., Smaragdov, M. G., Uimari, P. (2018). Developing a genetic evaluation system for milk traits in Russian Black and White dairy cattle. Agricultural and Food Science, 27(2), 85-95. https://doi.org/10.23986/afsci.69772

Larios-Sarabia, N., Ramírez-Valverde, R., Núñez-Domínguez, R., García-Muñiz, J. G. (2019). Investigación asociada con las evaluaciones genéticas de bovinos productores de leche en México. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 22, 315-329.

Larios-Sarabia, N., Ramírez-Valverde, R., Núñez-Domínguez, R., García-Muñiz, J. G., Ruíz-Flores, A. (2011). Caracterización técnica, social y económica de las empresas del hato bovino Jersey de registro en México. Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo, 8(2), 229-247.

Larios S., N. (2009). Caracterización del hato bovino Jersey de registro en México. Tesis de Maestría en Ciencias. Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Chapingo, Méx. 125 p.

Missanjo, E. M., Imbayarwo-Chikosi, V. E., Halimani, T. E. (2012). Genetic trends production and somatic cell count for Jersey cattle in Zimbabwe born from 1994 to 2005. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44(8), 1921-1925. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0157-6

Naderi, Y. (2016). Estimation of genetic parameters for milk yield, somatic cell score, and fertility traits in Iranian Holstein dairy cattle. IIOAB Journal, 7(8), 122-129.

Nizamani, A. H., y Berger, P. J. (1996). Estimates of genetic trend for yield traits of the registered Jersey population. Journal of Dairy Science, 79, 487-494. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76390-7

Pezeshkian, Z., Shadparvar, A. A., Joezy-Shekalgorabi, S. (2016). Estimation of genetic trends for test-day milk yield by the logarithmic form of wood function using a random regression model. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 6(1), 43-51.

Ramírez-Valverde, R., Peralta-Aban, J. A., Núñez-Domínguez, R., Ruíz-Flores, A., García-Muñiz, J. G., García-Peniche, T. B. (2010). Genotype by feeding system interaction in the genetic evaluation of Jersey cattle for milk yield. Animal, 4(12), 1971-1975. https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173111000128X

Ramírez-Valverde, R., Núñez-Domínguez, R., Fabián-Barrios, E. (2014a). Caracterización de las publicaciones sobre mejoramiento genético animal en México. Ecosistemas y Recursos Agropecuarios, 1(1), 59-72.

Ramírez-Valverde, R., Núñez-Domínguez, R., Palacios-Jiménez, A. L., Jiménez-Carrasco, J. S. (2014b). Characterization of dairy cattle germplasm used in Mexico with national genetic evaluations in importing and exporting countries. Livestock Science, 167(1), 51-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2014.05.028

Ramírez-Valverde, R., Ramírez Valverde, G., Núñez-Domínguez, R., Delgadillo Zapata, R. A., Hernández León, M. (2016). Association between genetic evaluation and show-ring judging for dairy and beef cattle. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 29(1), 25-32. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.rccp.v29n1a03

Rendel, J. M., y Robertson, A. (1950). Estimation of genetic gain in milk yield by selection in a closed herd of dairy cattle. Journal of Genetics, 50(1), 1-8.

Roso, V. M., y Schenkel, F. S. (2006). AMC-a computer program to assess the degree of connectedness among contemporary groups. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 13-18 August, pp. 26-27.

Sarakul, M., Koonawootrittriron, S., Elzo, M. A., Suwanasopee, T. (2011). Factors influencing genetic change for milk yield within farms in Central Thailand. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24(8), 1031-1040. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.10401

SAS. (2017). SAS/STAT User’s guide (Release 6.4). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Toledo A., H. O., Ruiz L., F. J., Vázquez P., C. G., Berruecos V., J. M., Elzo, M. A. (2014). Tendencias genéticas y fenotípicas para producción de leche de ganado Holstein en dos modalidades de control de producción. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 5(4), 471-485.

Valencia P., M., Ruíz L., F. J., Montaldo V., H., Keown, J. F., Van Vleck, L. D. (1999). Evaluación genética para la producción de leche en ganado Holstein en México. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 37(3), 1-8.

Vargas L., B., y Gamboa Z., G. (2008). Genetic trends, genotype-environment interaction and inbreeding in Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle from Costa Rica. Técnica Pecuaria en México, 46(4), 371-386.

Yaeghoobi, R., Doosti, A., Noorian, A. M., Bahrami, A. M. (2011). Genetic parameters and trends of milk and fat yield in Holstein’s dairy cattle of west provinces of Iran. International Journal of Dairy Science, 6(2), 142-149. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijds.2011.142.149




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v12i24.2305

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Nova Scientia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Scope

Nova Scientia is a multidisciplinary, electronic publication that publishes twice a year in the months of May and November; it is published by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío and aims to distribute unpublished and original papers from the different scientific disciplines written by national and international researchers and academics. It does not publish reviews, bibliographical revisions, or professional applications.

Nova Scientia, year 12, issue 24, May – October 2020, is a biannual journal printed by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, with its address: Av. Universidad 602, Col. Lomas del Campestre, C. P. 37150, León, Gto. México. Phone: (52) 477 214 3900, http://novascientia.delasalle.edu.mx/. Chief editor: Ph.D. Ramiro Rico Martínez. ISSN 2007 - 0705. Copyright for exclusive use No. 04-2008-092518225500/102, Diffusion rights via computer net 04 - 2008 – 121011584800-203 both granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor.

Editor responsible for updating this issue: Direction of Research Department of the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, last updated on May 15th, 2020.