The affects on the scientific argument: a useful perspective for the formation of the ability to argue
PDF (Español (España))

Keywords

argumentación
afectos
racionalidad científica
educación científica argumentation
affects
scientific rationality
scientific education

How to Cite

Stincer Gómez, D., & Monroy Nasr, Z. (2014). The affects on the scientific argument: a useful perspective for the formation of the ability to argue. Nova Scientia, 4(8), 110–128. https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v4i8.170

Abstract

In modern scientific education, training and developing students’ ability to argue, as it is argued in scientific disciplines, are educational strategies that have gained great support. This has led to a diversity of researches, among which are those focusing on the study of the psychological mechanisms underlying the ability to argue scientifically, which have led to the knowledge of mechanisms of a cognitive, metacognitive and social nature. However, the mechanisms of affective nature have been less explored. Perhaps this is because of the extended belief that affections disrupt our rationality, or do not appear to play an important role from the epistemological point of view. This paper focuses on showing that affections do have epistemological significance for this skill, taking into account major empirical hypotheses and findings arising from neuroscience and philosophy of science. Both disciplines argue that complex cognitive processes and operations, such as those involved in the construction of scientific knowledge, and therefore, in argumentation, are mediated and influenced by emotions such as interest, curiosity, fear, anxiety, certainty, doubt, anger, and discouragement, among others. These emotions have been considered "epistemic feelings or emotions". These disciplines have postulated that the mentioned affects activate, optimize, and grant efficiency to such cognitive processes and even seem to provide contents for propositional statements that result from the knowledge of an object or phenomenon. Both neuroscience and philosophy of science highlight the role of affects in processes such as decision making, validation of inferences, construction of hypotheses, stating problems, evaluation of evidence, and construction of categories ―all quite related to the cognitive processes that we see present in the argumentative discourse of science. The reflections raised have important implications for the formation of this ability, in handling situations that foster argumentation, as well as in overcoming difficulties and obstacles of a psychological nature that prevent the construction of a good argumentative discourse.
https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v4i8.170
PDF (Español (España))

References

Aristóteles (1999). Retórica, Madrid, Editorial Gredos.

Boekaerts, Monique. (2002a). Interest in learning to be interested. Learning and Instruction, (12): 375-382.

Boekaerts, Monique. (2002b). Motivation to learn. En Educational Practices Series compilado por Walberg, H, 1-27. International Academy of Education-International Bureau of Education (UNESCO).

Brun, George, Doguoglu, Ulvi & Kuezle, Dominique. (2008). A new role for emotion in epistemology? En Epistemology and Emotions, compilado por G. Brun, U. Doguoglu, & D. Kuenzle 1 – 31, Aldershot: Ashgate.

Chinn, Clark. A. y Brewer, William. F. (2001). Models of data: A theory of how people evaluate data. Cognition and Instruction, (19) No. 3: 323-393.

Damasio, Antonio.(2007). El error de Descartes. La emoción, la razón y el cerebro humano, Barcelona, Crítica..

de Sousa, Ronald.(1987). The Rationality of Emotion, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

de Sousa, Ronald. (2008). Epistemic Feeling. En Epistemology and Emotions compilado por G. Brun, U. Doguoglu, D. Kuenzle,185-204, , Ashgate, Alderchot.

Eccles, Jacquelynne. & Wilfield, Allan.(2002). Motivational belief, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.

Elgin, Catherine. (2008) Emotion and Understanding. En Epistemology and Emotions compilado por G. Brun, U. Doguoglu, y D. Kuenzle, 33-50, , , Ashgate, Alderchot.

Elster, Jon. (2003). Alquimias de la mente. La racionalidad y las emociones. España, Paidos Ibérica.

Fridja, Nico, Manstead, Antony S. R. y Ben, Sasha. (2000). The influence of emotions on beliefs. En Emotions and beliefs: how feelings influence thoughts, compilado por N. Fridja, N. Manstead, A.S. R.Manstead, y S. Ben,1- 9,, Cambridge University Press, Nueva York.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. (1966). Fenomenología del Espíritu. México. Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Hookway, Christopher. (2008). “Epistemic immediacy, doubt and anxiety: On a role for affective states in epistemic evaluation” en Epistemology and Emotions, compilado por G. Brun, U. Doguoglu y D. Kuenzle, 51-66, Ashgate, Alderchot.

Hume, David. (1984). Tratado de la Naturaleza Humana. Ediciones ORBIS, Buenos Aires.

Kuhn, Deanna. (1993). Science as Argument: Implications for teaching and learning scientific thinking, Science Education, (77 no.3): 319-337.

Mayer, John. D., Salovey, Peter., Caruso, David. R., and Sitarenios, Gill. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, (1): 232-242

Panksepp, Jaak. (1998). Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pérez Ransanz, Ana. Rosa. (2005). Las emociones como ingrediente básico de nuestras representaciones. Representaciones, Revista de Estudios sobre Representaciones en Arte, Ciencia y Filosofía, SIRCA Publicaciones Académicas, (1): 121- 134.

Pintrich, Paul. (1998). El papel de la motivación en el aprendizaje académico autorregulado. En Evaluación y fomento del desarrollo intelectual en la enseñanza de las ciencias, artes y técnicas. Perspectiva internacional en el umbral del siglo XXI, compilado por Castañeda, Sandra, 229-262. México: Facultad de Psicología, UNAM.

Pintrich, Paul. (1999). Motivational Belief as Resources for and Constraints on Conceptual Change, compilado por W . Schnotz, E. Vosniadou, & M. Carretero. New Perspective in Conceptual Change, 33-50. Londres: Elsevier.

Thagard, Paul. (2002). The Passionate Scientific: Emotion in Scientific Cognition. En The cognitive basis of science, compilado por P. Carruthers, S. Stich y M. Siegal , 235- 250. Cambridge.Cambridge University Press,

Thagard, Paul. (2008). How Cognitions Meets Emotion: Beliefs, Desires, and Feelings as Neural Activity. En Epistemology and Emotions, compilado por G. Brun, U. Doguoglu, y D. Kuenzle, 167-184, Ashgate, Aldershot

Walton, Douglas. (1992). The Place of Emotion in Argument. The Pennsylvania State, University Press, University Park.

Watson, James. D. (1969). The Double Helix. New York, New American Library.

Wild, Markus. (2008) Critical reflections on affective epistemology, en G. Brun, U. Doguoglu, y D. Kuenzle (comp.) Epistemology and Emotions, Ashgate, Alderschot.

Zeidler, Dana. L. (1997). The central role of fallacious thinking in science education. Science Education, (81): 483-496.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2015 Nova Scientia