Psychometric properties of the Desensitization to Violence Scale for Adolescents

Jaime Sebastián F. Galán Jiménez, Omar Sánchez-Armáss Cappello, Luis Felipe García y Barragán

Abstract


Introduction: Desensitization to violence is the result of exposure to violence. It reduces the negative emotions in cognitive and physiological responses to violence and can even generate a positive response to it.

Method: A mixed sequential method yielding a transactional analytic design for Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis with a sample of 1720 participants of 25 different high schools and a juvenile detention center. Followed by convergent validity (as a criterion validity) with a different sample.

Results: The EFA’s cumulative explained variance was 52% with a GFI of .98 with a three-factor model: sensitivity to violence, amusement with physical violence, and enjoyment of psychological violence. The CFA showed scores above .50 in Average Explained Variance in every factor, and an ideal model fit in every measure (CFI, AGFI, RMSEA, SRMR, and ECVI). The remaining factors are only those related with enjoying or amusement with violent behavior, indicating that the desensitization to violence is related not only with the normalization and legitimation of violence, but the increasing of the performance and amusement of it.

Discussion or Conclusion: The scale of desensitization to violence for adolescents has adequate psychometric properties and can be a valuable instrument to generate intervention or prevention programs, especially for its intimate relationship with high scores in people interned because of their criminal behavior.


Keywords


habituation; youth; psychometrics; social psychology; violence

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akers, Ronald.L. (2009) Aplicaciones de los principios del aprendizaje social. Algunos programas de tratamiento y prevención de la delincuencia. Available at: http://uned-illesbalears.net/Tablas/serrano3.pdf

American Psychological Association (2010) Ethic code. Reviewed in: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

Alimardani, A., Ardekani, A. M. y Astani, L. R. (2014). A Bio-Social Review to Mitigate the Punishment of Unwanted Acts. International journal of criminology and sociology, 3: 348-359.

Bandura, Albert. (1973) Aggression a social learning analysis. New

Jersey: Prentice-Hall

Bandura, Albert. (1977) Social learning theory. Estados Unidos de América: Prentice-Hall

Cooley-Strickland, Michele, Quille, Tanya J., Griffin, Robert. S., Stuart, Elizabeth. A., Bradshaw, Catherine. P. & Furr-Holden, Debra. (2011) Effects of youth’s exposure to community violence: the more project. Psychosocial Intervention, 20 (2): 131-148.

Corey, J. (2009). A concurrent validation of the violence sensitivity scale. University of Rhode Island. Doctoral Dissertation.

Cuevas, María Clara. & Castro, Leonidas (2009) Efectos emocionales y conductuales de la exposición a violencia en niños y adolescentes en Colombia. Psychology / PsicologíaConductual, 17 (2):277-297.

DeVellis, Robert. F. (2012). Scale development theory and applications. United States of America: Sage.

Dushyant, Kathan. & Wiesner, Margit (2015) Direct and Indirect Violence Exposure: Relations to Depression for Economically Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Mid-Adolescents. Violence and Victims, 30 (1): 120-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-12-00042

Escobar-Pérez, Jazmín. & Cuervo-Martínez, Angela. (2008). Validez de contenido y juicio de expertos: una aproximación a su utilización. Avances en medición, 65, 27-36. 10.1177/0886260515584337

F. Galán, Jaime. Sebastián., Hernández, N. A., Martínez, C. M. y Aguilar, Y. (2017) Desensitization to violence scale for adults. Manuscript in preparation.

Fanti, K.A., Vanman, E., Henrich, C. C. & Avraamides, M.N. (2009) Desensitization to media violence over a short period of time. Aggressive behavior, 35 (2): 179-187.

Fleckman, J.M., Drury, S.S., Taylor, C.A. &Theall, K.P. (2016) Role of Direct and Indirect Violence Exposure on Externalizing Behavior in Children. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 93 (3): 479-492. doi:10.1007/s11524-016-0052-

Funk, Jeanne. B., Baldacci, Heidi. Bechtoldt., Pasold, Tracie., & Baumgardner, Jennifer. (2004). Violence exposure in real life, video games, television, movies, and the Internet: Is there desensitization? Journal of Adolescence, 27 : 23–39.

Galdames, Susan. & Arón, Ana. María. (2007). Construcción de una escala para medir creenias legitimadoras de violencia en población infantil. Psykhe, 16 (1): 15-25.

Galán, Jaime Sebastian. & Preciado Serrano (2014) violence desensitization: delimitating a construct through a theoretical revision.Uaricha, 11 (25), 70-81.

Gaylord-Harden, Noni. K., Cunningham, J. A. &Zelenik, B. (2011) Effects of exposure to community violence on internalizing symptoms: does desensitization to violence occur in African American youth? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39: 711–719. DOI 10.1007/s10802-011-9510-x

Gaylord-Harden, Noni. K., Dickson, D. & Pierre, C. (2015) Profiles of Community Violence Exposure Among African American Youth: An Examination of Desensitization to Violence Using Latent Class Analysis. Journal of interpersonal violence, 31(11): 1-25. DOI: 10.1177/0886260515572474

Global Peace Index (2015) Global Peace Index. Retrieved from: http://www.visionofhumanity.org/#/page/indexes/global-peace-index

Ghiso, Alfredo. Manuel. (2012). Algunos límites de las respuestas frente a la violencia y la inseguridad, en las instituciones educativas. Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, 10, 2: 815-824.

Hernández, Roberto., Fernández, Carlos. & Baptista, M. Pilar. (2014) Metodología de la investigación. México: McGrawHill.

Huesmann, L. Rowell. y Guerra, Nancy. (1997). Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior. JournalofPersonality and Social Psychology, 72, 2: 408-419.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (2015) Encueta nacional de victimización y percepción sobre seguridad pública. Retrieved from: http://www.beta.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/proyectos/enchogares/regulares/envipe/2016/doc/envipe2016_slp.pdf

Krahé, Barbara., Möller, Ingrid., Kirwil, Lucina., Huesmann, L. Rowell., Felber, Juliane. & Berger, Anja. (2011) Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 100, 4: 630-64

Megías, J. L., Romero-Sánchez, M., Durán, M., Moya, M., &Bohner, G. (2013). Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression (AMMSA). Bielefeld University. doi:10.4119/unibi/2641703.

Merino, César. & Livia, José. (2009) Intervalos de confianza asimétricos para el índice la validez de contenido: Un programa Visual Basic para la V de Aiken. Anales de psicología, 25 (1): 169-171.

Mrug, Sylvie. & Windle, Michael. (2010) Prospective effects of violence exposure across multiple contexts on early adolescents’internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(8), 953–961. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02222.x

Mrug, Sylvie., Madan, Anjana, Cook III, Edwin. W. & Wright, Rex. A. (2014) Emotional and physiological desensitization to real-life and movie violence. Journal of youth adolescence,44(5): 1092–1108. DOI 10.1007/s10964-014-0202-z

Nunnally, Jum. C. (1987). Teoría psicométrica. México: Trillas.

Read, Glenna.L., Ballard, Mary., Emery, Lisa. J. & Bazzini, Doris. G. (2016). Examining desensitization using facial electromyography: violent videogames, gender, and affective responding. Computers in human behavior, 62, 201 - 211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.074

Salazar, Margarita. (2011). Un mal antiguo una larga historia. Noesis, 19, 38, 109- 130.

Staude-Müller, Frithjof, Bliesener, T. & Luthman, S. (2008) Hostile and Hardened? An Experimental Study on (De-)Sensitization to Violence and Suffering Through Playing Video Games. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 67 (1): 41-50.

Su Wei M., Mrug, Siylvie. & Windle, Michele. (2010) Social cognitive and emotional mediators link violence exposure and parental nurturance to adolescent aggression. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39 (6): 814–824.

Tarabah, Asma. Kurdahi, Lina., Usta, Jinan. & Doyle, John. (2015) Exposure to Violence and Children’s Desensitization Attitudes in Lebanon. Journal of Interpersonal Violence: 1 –22.

Timmerman, Marieke. E., & Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano. (2011) Dimensionality assessment of ordered polytomous items with parallel analysis. Psychological Methods, 16: 209-220.

Van Buuren, Stef. & Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Karin. (2011) Mice: Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations in R. Journal of Statistical Software, 45 (3): 1-67.

Wolpe, J. (1961). The systematic desensitization treatment of neuroses. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 132: 180-203.

World Health Organization (2014) Global status report on violence prevention 2014. World Health Organization: Luxemburg.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v11i22.1680

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Nova Scientia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Scope

Nova Scientia is a multidisciplinary, electronic publication that publishes biannually in the months of May and November; it is published by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío and aims to distribute unpublished and original papers from the different scientific disciplines written by national and international researchers and academics. It does not publish reviews, bibliographical revisions, or professional applications.

Nova Scientia, year 11, issue 22, May – October 2019, is a biannual journal printed by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, with its address: Av. Universidad 602, Col. Lomas del Campestre, C. P. 37150, León, Gto. México. Phone: (52) 477 214 3900, http://novascientia.delasalle.edu.mx/. Chief editor: Ph.D. Ramiro Rico Martínez. ISSN 2007 - 0705. Copyright for exclusive use No. 04-2008-092518225500/102, Diffusion rights via computer net 04 - 2008 – 121011584800-203 both granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor.

Editor responsible for updating this issue: Direction of Research Department of the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, last updated on May 28th, 2019.