Quality evaluation of Vanilla planifolia (Jacks. ex Andrews) beans from the Huasteca Potosina, México

Adán Cervantes Castillo, Mónica Lima Morales, Adriana Delgado Alvarado, Braulio Edgar Herrera Cabrera, Gustavo Antonio Arévalo Galarza, Ramón Marcos Soto Hernandez, Cecilia García Osorio, Ma. de Lourdes C. Arévalo Galarza

Abstract


Introduction: Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks ex Andrews), is an orchid, whose fruit has outstanding organoleptic characteristics, being the second most expensive spice after saffron and used as flavoring. Due to changes in the climate pattern in the Totonacapan producing region, in Veracruz, Mexico, the productivity of vanilla has decreased, but in other regions such as the Huasteca Potosina, commercial production represents an option for local producers. Therefore, in this study the quality of the vanilla from 14 sites of eleven localities, belonging to eight municipalities of the Huasteca Potosina, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, was evaluated.

Method: Vanilla fruits were harvested from each locality, in physiological maturity at 32 weeks of age (224 days after pollination), and they were subjected to the same process of curing and variables such as size, humidity percentage water activity, total soluble sugars and aroma compounds in the cured fruit were evaluated.

Results: It was found that the predominant sugar in vanilla fruits was glucose, with 1.55-4.28%. The fruits from 60 % of the collect sites achieve the minimum standard length. Vanillic acid was the component of the aroma with the greatest variation. The vanillin content of the fruits from all the municipalities had more than 1.2 %, and only the fruit samples from two sites (Tixcuayuca3 and Tamala) achieve the minimum of 2.0 % required by NOM-182-SCFI-2011.

Discussion and conclusion: There is a significant variation in the content of aromatic compounds, with a low ratio between the aroma compounds (p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde) and vanillin from 6.97-11.87 of the vanilla cured fruits from 14 sites of the Huasteca Potosina, Mexico. These differences are considered the result of the interaction of the environment with the species, culture conditions, nutrition, among others. Despite this it was found several fruits which stand out for their organoleptic quality, mainly for the vanillin content, such the ones grown at the municipalities of Matlapa, Xilita and Tamazunchale.

Keywords


aromatic compounds; curing; volatile compounds

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v10i21.1586

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