Possibilities of bamboo (Guadua angustifolia Kunth) for human consumption in Sierra Nororiental of Puebla, Mexico

Juan Francisco Aguirre Cadena, Benito Ramírez Valverde, Jorge Cadena Íñiguez, Laura Caso Barrera, José Pedro Juárez Sánchez, Daniel Claudio Martínez Carrera

Abstract


Introduction: Bamboo shoots are an alternative to unconventional vegetable food that contains 17 types of different enzymes and more than 10 mineral elements; it also contains a high rate of fiber, vitamins, amino acids, and is low in fat. However, it contains hydrocyanic acid (HCN) a toxic compound, which must be eliminated from the outbreaks before consumption. The objective of the research was to evaluate the content of HCN and consequently recommend its consumption.

Method: The quantification of HCN was carried out by the method proposed by Hake and Bradbury, which consists of paper strips impregnated with picrate that, in the presence of HCN, produces isopurpurine, which can be detected by spectrophotometry. To know the difference between the treatments according to the cooking time in the reduction of hydrocyanic acid, a completely randomized experimental design was used. The analysis of plant and bromatological tissue was carried out with the following procedures: fat (Soxhlet,), crude fiber (acid and alkaline Digestion), nitrogen (Micro Kjeldhal), humidity and ash (Gravimetry). The nutrient content, P and B (Colorimetry) and Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu (Atomic absorption spectrophotometry).

Results: The content of HCN is higher in raw sprouts and, decreased significantly with cooking times. When boiled for 15 minutes it was reduced by 73%; with 30 minutes, it was 93.64% and for 60 minutes, it decreased 98.7%. The bromatological components of bamboo shoots under different cooking times have more contrasting variations in the percentage of fat, protein and ash. The amount of fat, protein and moisture increase according to the boiling time, raw fiber is higher in boiled shoots between 15 and 30 minutes. Nutrimental analysis of plant tissue showed that P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn decreased their content with the cooking time, while N, Ca, Mg, Na, B and Cu, increased their percentage.

Discussion or Conclusion: Bamboo represents an alternative of nutrition, it is an abundant plant in the Northeast mountain range, easy to harvest, does not require extensive care, it also represents a food that has a high nutritional content. Bamboo shoots in raw form are not suitable for human consumption, requires some method to eliminate toxicity; the shoots must be processed properly since they contain toxic cyanogenic glycosides. The use of cooking times eliminates the toxicity by reduction of the cyanogenic compound, conserves its nutritional values and its consumption can be an accessible, economical and nutritious alternative in rural communities of scarce resources.


Keywords


shoots; hydrocyanic acid; cooking; food

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v10i21.1425

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