Thermodynamic properties of habanero chili oleorresin (Capsicum Chinense) microencapsulated in β-cyclodextrin

Irma Liliana Domínguez Cañedo, Cynthia Cano Sarmiento, Rubí Viveros


Introduction: Oleoresins are extracts of oily nature from chilies, used as ingredients to provide flavor and aroma to many food products. However, they are thermolabile and very susceptible to quality losses during processing or storage, it being convenient to encapsulate their bioactive components before being used as food ingredients in order that their useful life is not affected.

A methodology that allows to recommend the optimal storage conditions for dehydrated products is the proposed by Beristain and Azuara (1990). Where there is a zone of minimum integral entropy of the water molecules. In the minimum integral entropy, water is less available for deterioration reactions and the food retains its functional quality.

Method: Habanero chili oleoresin (OCH) was encapsulated using the molecular inclusion technique with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) to protect it during storage. The molecular inclusion complex was prepared in the proportions 20:80 and 30:70 oleoresin: β-cyclodextrin, respectively, and stored for 5 weeks in a range of aw =0.103–0.765 at 25, 35 and 45 °C. The thermodynamic properties were analyzed to explain the effect of temperature and aw on the encapsulates stability.

Results: The results showed that the inclusion complex in the 30-70 ratio is more stable than elaborated in the 20-80 ratio, being less hygroscopic, presenting a large zone of minimum integral entropy of around 0.3-0.6 aw and smaller ΔE values during storage at 25 ºC.

Conclusion: According to the thermodynamic analyzes and the tests of the variation of ΔE, it was possible to obtain the adequate proportion of encapsulation (OCH-βCD), as well as to recommend the best conditions of temperature and humidity during storage, in order to avoid drastic changes in the color, product of the thermal degradation of carotenoids present in the samples.


Habanero chili oleoresin; β-cyclodextrine; thermodynamic properties; water activity (aw)


Astray, G., Gonzalez-Barreiro, C., Mejuto, J. C., Rial-Otero, R., Simal-Gándara, J. (2009). A review on the use of cyclodextrins in foods. Food Hydrocolloids 23: 1631-1640.

Azuara, E., Beristain, C.I. (2006). Enthalpic and entropic mechanisms related to water sorption on yogurt. Drying Technology 24:1501-1507.

Azuara, E., Beristain, C.I (2007). Estudio termodinámico y cinético de la adsorcion de agua en proteína de suero de leche. Revista mexicana de Ingeniería Química 6: 359-365.

Barbero, G.F., Palma, M., Barroso, C.G. (2006). Pressurized liquid extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 3231-3236.

Beristain, C. I., Azuara, E. (1990). Estabilidad máxima en productos deshidratados. Ciencia 41:229-236.

Beristain, C. I., Diaz, R., Garcia, H. S., Azuara, E. (1994). Thermodynamic behavior of green whole and decaffeinated coffee beans during adsorption. Drying Technology 12: 1221-1233.

Beristain, C.I., García, H.S., Azuara, E. (1996). Enthalpy-entropy compensation in food vapours adsorption. Journal of Food Engineering 30: 405-415.

Beristain, C. I., Azuara, E., Vernon-Carter, E. J. (2002). Effect of water activity on the stability to oxidation of spray-dried encapsulated orange peel oil using mesquite gum (Prosopis juliflora) as wall material. Journal of Food Science 67: 206-211.

Bhandari, B. R., D’Arcy, B. R., Thi-Bich, L. L. (1998). Lemon oil to β-cyclodextrin ratio effect on the inclusion efficiency of β-cyclodextrin and the retention of oil volatiles in the complex. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46:1494-1499.

Brunauer, S., Deming, L.S., Deming, W.E., Teller, E. (1940). On a Theory of the van der Waals Adsorption of Gases. Journal of the American Chemical Society 62:1723-1732.

Cano-Sarmiento, C., Alamilla-Beltrán, L., Azuara-Nieto, E., Hernández-Sánchez, H., Téllez-Medina, D.I., Jiménez-Martínez, C., Gutiérrez-López, G.F. (2015). High Shear Methods to Produce Nano-sized Food Related to Dispersed Systems. In Food Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, compilado por Hernández-Sánchez H., Gutiérrez-López G., 145-161. Springer International Publishing.

Cho, Y.H., Park, J. (2009). Encapsulation of flavor by molecular inclusion using -cyclodextrin: comparison with spray-drying process using carbohydrate-based wall materials. Food Science and Biotechnology 18:185-189.

Domínguez, L., Azuara, E., Vernon-Carter, E. J. Beristain, C. I. (2007). Thermodynamic analysis of the effect of water activity on the stability of macadamia nut. Journal of Food Engineering 81:566-571.

Flores-Andrade, E. (2010). Construcción de sistemas nanoestructurados y su aplicación en estudios sobre estabilidad de alimentos. Tesis para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias en Alimentos, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional.

García-Alvarado, M.A., De La Cruz-Medina, J., Waliszewski-Kubiak, K.N., Salgado-Cervantes, M.A. (1995). Statistical analysis of the GAB and Henderson equations for sorption isotherms of foods. Drying Technology 13:2141-2152.

Gutierrez, G. F., Flores, E., Pascual, L. A., Azuara, E., Chanona, J. J., Alamilla, L. (2007). Construction of micro and nano-structures: possibility for food preservation. Alimentos Ciencia e Ingenieria 16: 54-63.

Kanakdande, D., Bhosale, R., Singhal, R.S. (2007). Stability of cumin oleoresin microencapsulated in different combination of gum Arabic, maltodextrin and modified starch. Carbohydrate Polymers 67: 536-541.

Karathanos, V. T., Mourtzinos, I., Yannakopoulous, K., Andrikopoulos, N. K. (2007). Study of the solubility, antioxidant activity and structure of inclusion complex of vanillin with β-cyclodextrin. Food Chemistry 101:652-658.

Kim, S., Park, J.B., Hwang, I. J. (2002). Quality attributes of various varieties of Korean red pepper powders (Capsicum annuum L.) and color stability during sunlight exposure. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 67: 2957-2961.

Krishnan, S., Bhosale, R., Singhal, R. (2005). Microencapsulation of cardamom oleoresin: evaluation of blends of gum Arabic, maltodextrin and a modified starch as wall materials. Carbohydrates Polymers 61:95-102.

Kurian, A.L., Starks, A.N. (2002). HPLC analysis of capsaicinoids extracted from whole orange habanero chili Peppers. Journal of Food Science 67:956-962.

Labuza, T.P. (1980). Enthalpy-entropy compensation in food reactions. Food Technology 34: 67-77.

Labuza, T. P., Kaanane, A., Chen, J. Y. (1985). Effect of temperature on the moisture sorption isotherms and water activity shift of two dehydrated foods. Journal of Food Science 50: 385-391.

Lang, K. W., McCune, T. D., Steinberg, M. P. (1981). Proximity equilibration cell for rapid determination of sorption isotherms. Journal of Food Science 46:936-938.

Lomauro, C.J., Bakshi, A.S., Labuza, T.P. (1985). Evaluation of food moisture sorption isotherms equations. Part II: Milk, coffee, tea, nuts, oilseed, spices and starchy foods. Lebensmittel Wissennschaft und Technology 18:118-124.

Lozano J.E., Ibarrz, A. (1997). Colour changes in concentrated adri pulp during heating at high temperatures. Journal of Food Engineering 31:365-373.

Nunes, R.V., Rotstein, E. (1991). Thermodynamics of the water-foodstuff equilibrium. Drying Technology 9:113-137.

Othmer, D.F. (1940). Correlating vapor pressure and latent heat data. A new plot. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 32:841-856.

Padukka, I., Bhandari, B., D’Arcy, B. (2000). Evaluation of various extraction methods of encapsulated oil from -cyclodextrin-lemon oil complex powder. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 13:59-70.

Reineccius, T. A., Reineccius, G. A., Peppard, T. L. (2002). Encapsulation of flavors using cyclodextrins: Comparison of flavor retention in alpha, beta and gamma types. Journal of Food Science: Food Chemistry and Toxicology 67:3271-3279.

Reineccius G.A. (2007) Flavour-Isolation Techniques. Flavours and Fragrances Chemistry, Bioprocessing and Sustainability 18:409-426.

Restrepo, G. M. (2006). Oleorresinas de capsicum en la industria alimentaria. Revista Lasallista de Investigación 3:43-47.

Shaikh, J., Bhosale, R., Singhal, R. (2006). Microencapsulation of black pepper oleoresin. Food chemistry 94:105-110.

Singh, S.R., Jarret, R., Russo, V., Majetich, G., Shimkus, J., Bushway, R., Perkins, B. (2009). Determination of capsinoids by HPLC-DAD in capsicum species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57:3452-3457.

Viveros, R., Tellez, D., Perea, M.J., Alamilla, L., Cornejo, M., Beristain, C.I., Azuara, E., Gutiérrez, G.F. (2013). Encapsulation of ascorbic acid into calcium alginate matrices through coacervation coupled to freeze-drying. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 12: 29-39.

Wexler, A. (1976). Vapor pressure formulation for water in range 0 to 100°C. A revision. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards. A. Physics and Chemistry 80:775–785.

Zaibunnisa, A.H., Norashikin, S., Mamot, S., Osman, H. (2009). Stability of curcumin in turmeric oleoresin--cyclodextrin inclusion complex during storage. The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences 13:165-169.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Nova Scientia

Nova Scientia, year 10, issue 20, May – October 2018, is a biannual journal printed by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, with its address: Av. Universidad 602, Col. Lomas del Campestre, C. P. 37150, León, Gto. México. Phone: (52) 477 7108500, e-mail: Chief editor: Ph.D. Ramiro Rico Martínez. ISSN 2007 - 0705. Copyright for exclusive use No. 04-2008-092518225500/102, Diffusion rights via computer net 04 - 2008 – 121011584800-203 both granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor.

Editor responsible for updating this issue: Direction of Research Department of the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, last updated on May 25th, 2018.