Effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the release and in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids in mango (Mangifera indica L.) ‘Ataulfo’-based beverages

Gilberto Mercado Mercado, Verónica López Teros, Efigenia Montalvo-González, Gustavo A González-Aguilar, Emilio Alvarez Parrilla, Sonia G Sáyago Ayerdi


Introduction: During the industrial processing of the mango is wasted close to 40 % of by-products (BP, peel and paste). These BP contain carotenoids that benefit to the consumer’s health, such as, the carotenoids. Hence, it is a matter of interest to know if the carotenoids can be bioaccessible. Hence, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has proven to be a tool to increase their bioaccessibility of diverse bioactive compounds. In this sense, it is proposed to develop beverages where BP were used applying the UAE, evaluating in vitro the bioaccessibility of carotenoids.                      

Method: Four beverages were developed, a control (CB), and three with UAE (B-UAE1: XET: 30 min, XSA: 30 %, XDC: 0.8; B-UAE2: XET: 15 min, XSA: 70 %, XDC: 0.4; B-UAE3: XET: 12 min, XSA: 100 % and XDC: 1). The carotenoids profile was analyzed by HPLC-DAD and in the in vitro bioaccessibility. The kinetics of the release of these compounds was evaluated in the gastric digestion (GD) and intestinal (ID), as well as, its retention in the soluble indigestible fraction (SIF) and insoluble indigestible fraction (IIF). In this way, it was determined the percentage of bioaccessibility (%BA) of carotenoids. Finally, it was determined the release kinetics during 180 min, estimating the kinetic parameters (final velocity and constant kinetic).

Results: The carotenoids content were ranged from 0.01 to 3.29 µg/100 mL in the mango beverages. The xanthophylls showed significant differences in all beverages with UAE in the ID. The UAE had a negative effect on the β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene content in B-UAE2 and B-UAE3. On the other hand, the α-carotene content was similar in all beverages. During ID, the α-carotene and β-carotene content were higher in CB and lutein and zeaxanthin contents were higher in the B-UAE1. The %BA of lutein, zeaxanthin (Zea), α-carotene and β-carotene in the B-UAE1 was 95.63, 56.88, 65.20, and 90.54%, respectively. Therefore, βCr and Zea were the most not bioaccessible in BC and B-EAU3, respectively. The B-UAE1 presented a greater rate of release of β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and β-carotene.                      

Discussion or Conclusion:  UAE caused a decrease in the carotenoids content due to isomerization reactions. The release of the xanthophylls and carotenes can be due to components of the food matrix, interactions of the carotenoids with other compounds, and the preparation of beverages. However, the UAE favors the release of these compounds. On the other hand, the presence of carotenoids in the SIF and IIF was due to dietary fiber of the peel, and the xanthan gum. In this way, UAE contributes to increase the %BA of carotenoids. Therefore, the release kinetic parameters show that there are diverse factors that influence this phenomenon such as the synergistic or antagonistic action between the carotenoids and other components.


By-products; mango; carotenoids; bioaccessibility; beverage; ultrasound-assisted extraction


Achoff, J. K., Kaufmann, S., Kalkan, O., Nedhart, S., Carle, R. y Schweiggert, R. M. (2014). In vitro bioccessibility of carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin C from differently processed oranges and orange juices [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 63: 578-587.

Altemimi, A., Lightfoot, D. A., Kinsel, M. y Watson, D. G. (2015). Employing response sur-face methodology for the optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Molecules. 20: 6611-6625.

Ajila, C M., Bhat, S. G. y Prasada-Rao, U. J. S. (2007). Valuable components of raw and ripe pells from two Indian mango varieties. Food Chemistry. 102: 1006-1011.

Blancas-Benítez, F. J., Avena-Bustillos, R. J., Montalvo-Gonzalez, E., Sáyago-Ayerdi, S. G. y McHugh, T. H. (2015a). Addition of dried ‘Ataulfo’ mango (Mangifera indica L) by-products as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols in starch molded mango snacks. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 52(11): 7393-7400.

Blancas-Benítez, F.J., Mercado-Mercado, G., Quirós-Sauceda, A.E., Montalvo-González, E., González-Aguilar, G.A. y Sáyago-Ayerdi, S.G. (2015b). Bioaccessibility of polyphenols as-sociated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics reléase of polyphenols in Mexican ‘Ataulfo’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products. Food and Function. 6(3): 859-868.

Blanquet-Diot, S., Soufi, M., Rambeau, M., Rock, E. y Alric, M. (2009). Digestive stability of xanthophylls esceeds that of carotenes as studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal system. Journal of Nutrition. 876-883.

Cano, M. P. y de Ancos. (1994). Carotenoid and carotenoid ester composition in mango fruit as influenced by processing method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 42(12): 2737-2742.

Carail, M., Fabiano-Tixier, A. S., Meullemiestre, A., Chemat, F. & Caris-Veyrat, C. (2015). Effects of high power ultrasound on all-E-β-carotene, newly formed compounds analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 26: 200–209.

Carrillo-López, L. M., Alarcon-Rojo, A. D., Luna-Rodríguez, L. y Reyes-Villagrana, R. (2017). Modification of food system by ultrasound. Hindawi Journal of Food Quality. 12.

Chen, J. P., Tai, C. Y. y Chen, B. H. (2004). Improve liquid chromatographis method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.).Journal of Chrmatography A. 1054: 261-268.

Cilla, A., Alegría, A., de Ancos, B., Sánchez-Moreno, C., Pilar-Cano, M., Plaza, L., Clemente, G., Lagarda, M. J. y Barberá, R. (2012). Bioaccessibility of tocopherols, carote-noids, and ascorbic acid from milk- and soy-based fruit beverages: influence of food matrix and processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60: 7282-7290.

Colchero, M. A., Popkin, B. M., Rivera, J. A. y Ng, S. W. (2016). Beverage purchases from stores in Mexico under the excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages: observational study. British Medican Journal. 6: 352.

Corte-Real, J., Bertucci, M., Soukoulis, C., Desmarchelier, C., Borel, P., Richling, E., Hoff-mann, L. y Bohn, T. (2017). Negeative effects of divalent mineral cations on the bioaccessi-bility of carotenoids from plant food matrices and related physical properties of gastro-intestinal fluids. Food and Function. 8: 1008-1019.

D’Evoli, L., Lombardi-Boccia, G. y Lucarini, M. (2013). Influence of heat treatments on ca-rotenoid content of cherry tomatoes. Foods. 2: 352-363.

Domínguez-Cañedo, I. L., Beristain-Guevara, C. I., Díaz-Sobac, R. y Vázquez-Luna, A. (2015). Degradación de carotenoides y capsaicina en el complejo de inclusión molecular de oleorresina de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense) con β-ciclodextrina. CyTA – Journal of Food. 13(1): 151-158.

Edwards, J. A. (2016). Zeaxanthin, review of toxicological data and acceptable daily intake. Journal of Ophthalmology. 4: 1-15.

Eriksen, J. N., Luu, A. Y., Dragsted, L. O. y Arrigoni, E. (2017). Adaption of an in vitro di-gestión method tos creen carotenoid liberation and in vitro accessibility from differently pro-cessed spinach preparation. Food Chemistry. 224: 407-413.

Estévez-Santiago, R., Olmedilla-Alonso, B. y Fernández-Jalao, I. (2016). Bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids from fruits: application of a standardised static in vitro digestion method. Food and Fuction. 7: 1354-1366.

Fernández-García, E., Rincón, F. y Pérez-Gálvez, A. (2008). Developing an emulsifier system to improve the bioaccessibility of carotenoids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56: 10384-10390.

Fernández-García, E., Carvajal-Lérida, I., Jarén-Galán, M., Garrido-Fernández, J., Pérez-Gálvez, A. y Hornero-Méndez, D. (2012). Carotenoids bioavailability from foods: from plant pigments to efficient biological activities. Food Research International. 46: 438-450.

Goula, A. M., Ververi, M., Adamopoulou, A. y Kaderides, K. (2017). Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegrate wastes using vegetable oils. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 34: 821-830.

Fiedor, J. y Burda, K. (2014). Review Potential role of carotenoids as antioxidants in human health and disease. Nutrients. 6: 466-488.

Goñi, I., Serrano, J. y Saura-Calixto, F. (2006). Bioaccessibility of β-carotene, lutein, and ly-copene from fruits and vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54: 5382-5387.

Janiszewska, E. y Sakowski, P. (2013). Effect of the ultrasound on the carrot juices freezing process. Inzynieria Rolnicza. 4(148): 49-57.

Izli, N., Izli, G. y Taskin, O. (2017). Influence of different drying techniques on drying pa-rameters of mango. Food Science and Technology. 37(4): 604-612.

Jawed, K., Mattam, A. J., Fatma, Z., Wajid, S., Abdin, M. y Yazdani, S. S. (2016). Engi-neered production of short chain fatty acid in Escherichia coli using fatty acid synthesis pathway. PLOSone. 1-20.

Kiokas, S., Proestos, C. y Varzakas, T. (2016). A review of the structure, bosynthesis, absorp-tion of carotenoids-analysis and properties of their common natural extracts. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 4(Special Issue 1): 25-37.

Khoo, H. E., Nagendra-Praad, K., Kong, K. W., Jiang, Y. y Ismail, A. (2011). Review carote-noids and their isomers: color pigments in fruits and vegetables. Molecules. 16: 1710-1738.

Khoo, H. E., Nagendra-Prasad, K., Ismail, A. y Mohd-Esa, N. (2010). Carotenoids from Mangifera pajang and their antioxidant capacity. Molecules. 15: 6699-6712.

Kodal, S. P. y Aksu, Z. (2017). Phenolic pigment extraction from orange peels: kinetic model-ing. 15th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. Rhodes, Greece. 31 August to 2 September 2017. 798-803.

Kong, F., Yu, S., Bi, Y., Huang, X. y Huang, M. (2016). Optimization of process parameters and kinetic model of enzymatic extraction of polyphenols from Lonicerae Flos. Pharmacog-nosy Magazine. 12(45): 70-74.

Kotake-Nara E. y Nagao, A. (2011). Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls. Marine Drugs. 9: 1024-1037.

Kuppusamy, P., Yusoff, M. M., Maniam, G. P., Arief-Ichwan, S. J., Soundharrajan, I. y Go-vindan, N. (2014). Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancerL a review. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. 4(3): 173-181.

Lauricella, M., Emanuele, S., Calvaruso, G., Giuliano, M. y D’Anneo, A. (2017). Multifacet-ed health benefits of Mangifera indica L. (Mango): the inestimable value of orchards recently planted in Sicilian rural areas. Nutrients. 9: 525.

Lin, K. H., Lin, K. C., Lu, W. J., Thomas, P. A., Jayakumar, T. y Sheu, J. R. (2016). Astaxan-thin, a carotenoid, stimulates immune response by enhancing IFN-γ all IL-2 secretion in pri-mary cultured lymphocytes in vitro and ex vivo. International Journal of Molecular Science. 17: 44.

Low, D. Y., D’Arcy, B. y Gidley, M. J. (2015). Mastication effects on carotenoid bioaccessi-bility from mango fruit tissue. Food Research International. 67: 238-246.

Mares, J. (2016). Lutein and zeaxanthin isomers in eye health and disease. Reviews in Ad-vance. Annual Reviews of Nutrition. 36: 24-29.

Mardai, A., Maldonado, F., Cuadros, S., Bautista, (2012). Adsoprtion, isotherm, thermody-namic and kinetcs studies of polyphenols onto tannery shavings. Chemical Engineering Jour-nal. 185(15): 21-29.

Marx, M., Stuparic, M., Schieber, A. y Carle, R. (2003). Effect of thermal processing on trans-cis-isomerization of β-carotene in carrot juices ad carotene-containing preparation. Food Chemistry. 83: 609-617.

Mercadante, A. Z., Rodríguez-Amaya, D. B. y Britton, G. (1998). HPLC and mass spectro-metric analysis of carotenoids from mango. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 45: 120-123.

Naldal, U. y Bhardwaj, R. L. (2012). Aloe vera for human nutrition, health and cosmetic use – A review. International Reearch Journal of Plant Science. 3(3): 38-46.

Nidhi, B., Ramaprasad, T. R. y Baskaran, V. (2014). Dietry fatty acid determines the intesti-nal absorption of lutein in lutein deficient mice. Food Research International. 64: 256-263.

Nwachukwu, I. D., Udenigwe, C. C. y Aluko, R. E. (2016). Review: lutein and zeaxanthin: production technology, bioavailability, mechanism of action, visual function, and health claim status. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 49: 74-84.

Ofori-Boateng, C. y Lee, K.T. (2013). Response surface optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of carotenoids from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds. Food Science and Nutrition. 1(3): 209-221.

Ordoudi, S. A., Kyriakoudi, A. y Tsimidou, M. Z. (2015). Enhanced bioaccessibility of croce-tin sugar esters from saffron in infusions rich in natural phenolic antioxidants. Molecules. 20: 17760-17774.

Ornelas-Paz, J. J., Yahia, E. M. y Gardea, A. A. (2008). Changes in external and internal col-or during posthaervest ripening of ‘Manila’ and ‘Ataulfo’ mango fruit and relationship with carotenoid content determined by liquid chromatography-APcL+-time-of-flight mass spec-trometry. Postharbest Biology and Technology. 50: 145-152.

Palafox-Carlos, H., Ayala-Zavala, J. F. y González-Aguilar, G. A. (2011). The role of dietary fiber in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of fruit and vegetable antioxidants. Journal of Food Science. 76(1): R6-R15.

Periago, M. J., Martínez-Valverde, I., Ros, G., Martínez, C. y López, G. (2001). Propiedades químicas, biológicas y valor nutritivo del licopeno. Anales de Veterinaria de Murcia. 17: 51-66.

Petry, C. F. y Mercadante, A. Z. (2018). Short report New method for carotenoid extraction and analysis by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in freeze-dried citrus and mango pulp. Journal of Brazilian Chemical Society. 29(1): 205-216.

Plaza, L., Crespo, I., de Pascual-Teresa, S., de Ancos, B., Sánchez-Moreno, C., Muñoz, M. y Pilar-Cano, M. (2011). Impact of minimal processing on orange bioactive compounds during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry. 124: 646-651.

Poojary, M. M., Barba, F. J., Aliakbarian, B., Donsi, F., Pataro, G., Dias, D. A. y Juliano, P. (2016). Innovative alternative technologies to extract carotenoids from microalgae and sea-weeds. Marine Drugs. 14: 2-34.

Pott, I., Breithaupt, D. E. y Carle, R. (2003). Detection of unusual carotenoid ester in fresh mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Kent’). Phytochemistry. 64: 825-829.

Qin, J., Yeum, K. J., Johnson, E., Krinsky, N. I., Russell, R. M. y Tang, G. (2008). Determi-nation of 9-cis β-carotene and ζ-carotene in biological samples. Journal of Nutritional Bio-chemistry. 19: 612-618.

Radi, R., Firouzi, E., Akhavan, H. y Amiri, S. (2017). Effect of gelatin0based edible coating incorporated with Aloe vera and black and Green tea extracts on the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges. Hindawi Journal of Food Quality. 10.

Ravani, A. y Joshi, D. C. (2013). Mango and its by-product utilization – a review. Trend in Post Harvest Technology. 1(1): 55-67.

Rodríguez-Roque, M. J., Rojas-Graii, M. A., Elez-Martínez, P. y Martín-Belloso, O. (2013). Changes in vitamin C, phenolic, and carotenoid profiles throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digesion of a blended fruit juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 61: 1859-1867.

Rodríguez-Roque, M. J., Rojas-Graǖ, M. A., Martínez, P. E. y Martín-Belloso, O. (2014). In vitro bioaccessibility of health-related compounds as affected by the formulation of fruit juice- and milk-based beverages. Food Research International. 62: 771-778.

Saura-Calixto, F., García-Alonso, A. Goñi, I. y Bravo, L. (2000). In vitro determination of indigestible fraction in foods: an alternative to dietary fiber analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 48(8): 3342-3347.

Sen, A., Ren, J., Ruffin, M. T., Tergeon, D. K., Brenner, D. E., Sidahmed, E., Rapai, M. E., Cornellier, M. L. y Djuric, Z. (2013). Relationship between serum and colon concentrations of carotenoids and fatty acids in randomized dietary intervention trial. Cancer Prevention Re-search. 6(6): 558-565.

Shannon, E., Jaiswal, A. K. y Abu-Ghannam, N. (2017). Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white, green, black, and herbal teas: a kinetic study. Food Researh. 2(1): 1-11.

Song, J. F., Li, D. J., Pang, H. L. y Liu, C. Q. (2015). Effect of ultrasonic waves on the stabil-ity of all-trans lutein and its degradation kinetics. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 27: 602-608.

Taipina, M.S., Lamardo, L. C. A., Camilo-Campos, N., Tavares, M., González, E., Ferrerira-Jorge, L. I. y Aued-Pimentel, S. (2013). Review of literatura: carotenoids, chemical composi-tion and dietary reference intake of buriti fruits. International Journal of Nutrology. 6(3): 102-106.

Wassef, L., Wirawan, R., Chikindas, M., Breslin, P, A. S., Hoffman, D. J. y Quadro, L. (2014). β-carotene-producing bacteria residing in the intestine provide vitamin A to mouse tissues in vivo. Journal of Nutrition. 144(5): 608-613.

Zhang, Y. J., Gan. R. Y., Li, S., Zhou, Y., Li, A. N., Xu, D. P. y Li, H. B. (2015). Antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Molecules. 20: 21138-21156.

Zou, Y. y Jiang, A. (2016). Effect of ultrasound treatment on quality and microbial load of carrot juice. Food Science and Technology, Campinas. 36(1): 111-115.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v10i20.1277


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Nova Scientia


Nova Scientia is a multidisciplinary, electronic publication that publishes biannually in the months of May and November; it is published by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío and aims to distribute unpublished and original papers from the different scientific disciplines written by national and international researchers and academics. It does not publish reviews, bibliographical revisions, or professional applications.

Nova Scientia, year 10, issue 21, November 2018 – April 2019, is a biannual journal printed by the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, with its address: Av. Universidad 602, Col. Lomas del Campestre, C. P. 37150, León, Gto. México. Phone: (52) 477 214 3900, e-mail: http://nova_scientia.delasalle.edu.mx. Chief editor: Ph.D. Ramiro Rico Martínez. ISSN 2007 - 0705. Copyright for exclusive use No. 04-2008-092518225500/102, Diffusion rights via computer net 04 - 2008 – 121011584800-203 both granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor.

Editor responsible for updating this issue: Direction of Research Department of the Universidad De La Salle Bajío, last updated on November 23th, 2018.