The Physical and chemical characterization of the nut and oil from the nine varieties of Macadamia integrifolia, M. tetraphylla and interspecies hybrids

Elia Nora Aquino-Bolaños, Laura Mapel-Velazco, José L. Chávez-Servia, Rubén Corona-Velázquez, Socorro Herrera-Meza, Iñigo Verdalet-Guzmán

Abstract


Macadamia is part of the plant family Proteaceae, and the only species of commercial interest are M. integrifolia and M. tetraphylla. There is currently a growing demand for these nuts given their high nutritional and functional value due numerous studies have shown the protective effects of its consumption decreasing the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases; however, there is a significant level of variability in regard to the quality of the nut and its derivatives.

Method. Color parameters L*, a* y b* were registered on the nut and analyzed humidity, sugars, polyphenols and antioxidant activity; while humidity, Free Fatty Acid (FFA) index and the Peroxide Index (PI) were evaluated in oil.

Results. Humidity levels varied greatly among the different varieties (22.9 a 40.6 g 100 g-1), while color parameters were similar (L*= 60.2 a 68.8). Victoria given their higher sugar content, (57.5 mg glucose g-1) could be consumed fresh. UCLA and Huatusco had the highest content of polyphenols (>1.2 mg EAG g-1) and antioxidant activity (>7.0 µmol Eq. Trolox g-1). The oil presented a low percentage of humidity (≤0.22%) and FFA; furthermore, the PI was lower than the permissible limit for virgin vegetable oils (15 m Eq. O2 kg-1).

Conclusion. Given the physicochemical characteristics of the nut and oil from the different varieties, a range of uses, preferably within the food industry, is recommended.


Keywords


macadamia nut; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; peroxide index

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21640/ns.v9i19.1098

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